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Some studies have found that pedophiles are less cognitively impaired than non-pedophilic child molesters.
Another study, using structural MRI , indicated that male pedophiles have a lower volume of white matter than a control group.
The findings may also suggest "a dysfunction at the cognitive stage of sexual arousal processing". Blanchard, Cantor, and Robichaud reviewed the research that attempted to identify hormonal aspects of pedophiles.
While not causes of pedophilia themselves, childhood abuse by adults or comorbid psychiatric illnesses—such as personality disorders and substance abuse —are risk factors for acting on pedophilic urges.
Do particular genes or noxious factors in the prenatal environment predispose a male to develop both affective disorders and pedophilia, or do the frustration, danger, and isolation engendered by unacceptable sexual desires—or their occasional furtive satisfaction—lead to anxiety and despair?
A study analyzing the sexual fantasies of heterosexual men by using the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire exam determined that males with a pronounced degree of paraphilic interest including pedophilia had a greater number of older brothers, a high 2D:4D digit ratio which would indicate low prenatal androgen exposure , and an elevated probability of being left-handed , suggesting that disturbed hemispheric brain lateralization may play a role in deviant attractions.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition DSM-5 has a significantly larger diagnostic features section for pedophilia than the previous DSM version, the DSM-IV-TR , and states, "The diagnostic criteria for pedophilic disorder are intended to apply both to individuals who freely disclose this paraphilia and to individuals who deny any sexual attraction to prepubertal children generally age 13 years or younger , despite substantial objective evidence to the contrary.
These include the presence of sexually arousing fantasies, behaviors or urges that involve some kind of sexual activity with a prepubescent child with the diagnostic criteria for the disorder extending the cut-off point for prepubescence to age 13 for six months or more, or that the subject has acted on these urges or suffers from distress as a result of having these feelings.
The criteria also indicate that the subject should be 16 or older and that the child or children they fantasize about are at least five years younger than them, though ongoing sexual relationships between a to year-old and a late adolescent are advised to be excluded.
A diagnosis is further specified by the sex of the children the person is attracted to, if the impulses or acts are limited to incest , and if the attraction is "exclusive" or "nonexclusive".
The ICD defines pedophilia as "a sexual preference for children, boys or girls or both, usually of prepubertal or early pubertal age".
The person must also have a persistent or predominant sexual preference for prepubescent children at least five years younger than them.
This diagnosis does not apply to sexual behaviours among pre- or post-pubertal children with peers who are close in age.
Several terms have been used to distinguish "true pedophiles" from non-pedophilic and non-exclusive offenders, or to distinguish among types of offenders on a continuum according to strength and exclusivity of pedophilic interest, and motivation for the offense see child sexual offender types.
Exclusive pedophiles are sometimes referred to as true pedophiles. They are sexually attracted to prepubescent children, and only prepubescent children.
Showing no erotic interest in adults, they can only become sexually aroused while fantasizing about or being in the presence of prepubescent children, or both.
Non-exclusive offenders are sexually attracted to both children and adults, and can be sexually aroused by both, though a sexual preference for one over the other in this case may also exist.
If the attraction is a sexual preference for prepubescent children, such offenders are considered pedophiles in the same vein as exclusive offenders.
The diagnosis can therefore be made based on the presence of fantasies or sexual urges even if they have never been acted upon.
On the other hand, a person who acts upon these urges yet experiences no distress about their fantasies or urges can also qualify for the diagnosis.
Acting on sexual urges is not limited to overt sex acts for purposes of this diagnosis, and can sometimes include indecent exposure , voyeuristic or frotteuristic behaviors,  or masturbating to child pornography.
Likewise, when the patient is in late adolescence, the age difference is not specified in hard numbers and instead requires careful consideration of the situation.
Ego-dystonic sexual orientation F Its criterion A concerns sexual fantasies or sexual urges regarding prepubescent children, and its criterion B concerns acting on those urges or the urges causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.
Several researchers discussed whether or not a "contented pedophile"—an individual who fantasizes about having sex with a child and masturbates to these fantasies, but does not commit child sexual abuse, and who does not feel subjectively distressed afterward—met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia since this person did not meet criterion B.
A large-scale survey about usage of different classification systems showed that the DSM classification is only rarely used. As an explanation, it was suggested that the underinclusiveness, as well as a lack of validity, reliability and clarity might have led to the rejection of the DSM classification.
Ray Blanchard , an American-Canadian sexologist known for his research studies on pedophilia, addressed in his literature review for the DSM-5 the objections to the overinclusiveness and under underinclusiveness of the DSM-IV-TR, and proposed a general solution applicable to all paraphilias.
This meant namely a distinction between paraphilia and paraphilic disorder. The latter term is proposed to identify the diagnosable mental disorder which meets Criterion A and B, whereas an individual who does not meet Criterion B can be ascertained but not diagnosed as having a paraphilia.
The American Psychiatric Association stated that "[i]n the case of pedophilic disorder, the notable detail is what wasn't revised in the new manual.
O'Donohue, however, suggests that the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia be simplified to the attraction to children alone if ascertained by self-report, laboratory findings, or past behavior.
He states that any sexual attraction to children is pathological and that distress is irrelevant, noting "this sexual attraction has the potential to cause significant harm to others and is also not in the best interests of the individual.
Barbaree and Michael C. Seto disagreed with the American Psychiatric Association's approach in and instead recommended the use of actions as the sole criterion for the diagnosis of pedophilia, as a means of taxonomic simplification.
There is no evidence that pedophilia can be cured. There are several common limitations to studies of treatment effectiveness.
Most categorize their participants by behavior rather than erotic age preference, which makes it difficult to know the specific treatment outcome for pedophiles.
Offenders who refuse or quit treatment are at higher risk of offending, so excluding them from the treated group, while not excluding those who would have refused or quit from the control group, can bias the treated group in favor of those with lower recidivism.
Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT aims to reduce attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that may increase the likelihood of sexual offenses against children.
Its content varies widely between therapists, but a typical program might involve training in self-control, social competence and empathy, and use cognitive restructuring to change views on sex with children.
The most common form of this therapy is relapse prevention , where the patient is taught to identify and respond to potentially risky situations based on principles used for treating addictions.
The evidence for cognitive behavioral therapy is mixed. Behavioral treatments target sexual arousal to children, using satiation and aversion techniques to suppress sexual arousal to children and covert sensitization or masturbatory reconditioning to increase sexual arousal to adults.
Pharmacological interventions are used to lower the sex drive in general, which can ease the management of pedophilic feelings, but does not change sexual preference.
Cyproterone acetate Androcur and medroxyprogesterone acetate Depo-Provera are the most commonly used. The efficacy of antiantrogens has some support, but few high-quality studies exist.
Cyproterone acetate has the strongest evidence for reducing sexual arousal, while findings on medroxyprogesterone acetate have been mixed.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues such as leuprorelin Lupron , which last longer and have fewer side-effects, are also used to reduce libido,  as are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Historically, surgical castration was used to lower sex drive by reducing testosterone. The emergence of pharmacological methods of adjusting testosterone has made it largely obsolete, because they are similarly effective and less invasive.
Non-randomized studies have reported that surgical castration reduces recidivism in contact sex offenders. Females may account for 0.
The term pedophile is commonly used by the public to describe all child sexual abuse offenders. Some pedophiles do not molest children.
He states that pedophiles who are "reflective, sensitive to the feelings of others, averse to risk, abstain from alcohol or drug use, and endorse attitudes and beliefs supportive of norms and the laws" may be unlikely to abuse children.
The pedophilic molesters had neurological deficits suggestive of disruptions in inhibitory regions of the brain, while non-offending pedophiles had no such deficits.
According to Abel, Mittleman, and Becker  and Ward et al. They state that non-pedophilic offenders tend to offend at times of stress; have a later onset of offending; and have fewer, often familial, victims, while pedophilic offenders often start offending at an early age; often have a larger number of victims who are frequently extrafamilial; are more inwardly driven to offend; and have values or beliefs that strongly support an offense lifestyle.
One study found that pedophilic molesters had a median of 1. Some groom their victims into compliance with attention and gifts, while others use threats, alcohol or drugs, or physical force.
Pedophilia is believed to have occurred in humans throughout history,  but was not formally named, defined or studied until the late 19th century.
The term paedophilia erotica was coined in an article by the Viennese psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing but does not enter the author's Psychopathia Sexualis  until the 10th German edition.
Krafft-Ebing describes several typologies of offender, dividing them into psychopathological and non-psychopathological origins, and hypothesizes several apparent causal factors that may lead to the sexual abuse of children.
Krafft-Ebing mentioned paedophilia erotica in a typology of "psycho-sexual perversion". He wrote that he had only encountered it four times in his career and gave brief descriptions of each case, listing three common traits:.
He mentions several cases of pedophilia among adult women provided by another physician , and also considered the abuse of boys by homosexual men to be extremely rare.
He also lists pseudopaedophilia as a related condition wherein "individuals who have lost libido for the adult through masturbation and subsequently turn to children for the gratification of their sexual appetite" and claimed this is much more common.
Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud briefly wrote about the topic in his book Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality in a section titled The Sexually immature and Animals as Sexual objects.
He wrote that exclusive pedophilia was rare and only occasionally were prepubescent children exclusive objects.
He wrote that they usually were the subject of desire when a weak person "makes use of such substitutes" or when an uncontrollable instinct which will not allow delay seeks immediate gratification and cannot find a more appropriate object.
In , Swiss neuroanatomist and psychiatrist Auguste Forel wrote of the phenomenon, proposing that it be referred to it as "Pederosis", the "Sexual Appetite for Children".
Similar to Krafft-Ebing's work, Forel made the distinction between incidental sexual abuse by persons with dementia and other organic brain conditions, and the truly preferential and sometimes exclusive sexual desire for children.
However, he disagreed with Krafft-Ebing in that he felt the condition of the latter was largely ingrained and unchangeable.
The term pedophilia became the generally accepted term for the condition and saw widespread adoption in the early 20th century, appearing in many popular medical dictionaries such as the 5th Edition of Stedman's in In , it was included in the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
The DSM-III, published in , contained a full description of the disorder and provided a set of guidelines for diagnosis.
Pedophilia is not a legal term,  and having a sexual attraction to children is not illegal. These crimes may include child sexual abuse , statutory rape , offenses involving child pornography , child grooming , stalking , and indecent exposure.
One unit of the United Kingdom's Child Abuse Investigation Command is known as the " Paedophile Unit " and specializes in online investigations and enforcement work.
In the United States, following Kansas v. Hendricks , sex offenders who have certain mental disorders, including pedophilia, can be subject to indefinite civil commitment under various state laws  generically called SVP laws  and the federal Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of In Kansas v.
Hendricks , the US Supreme Court upheld as constitutional a Kansas law, the Sexually Violent Predator Act , under which Hendricks, a pedophile, was found to have a "mental abnormality" defined as a "congenital or acquired condition affecting the emotional or volitional capacity which predisposes the person to commit sexually violent offenses to the degree that such person is a menace to the health and safety of others", which allowed the State to confine Hendricks indefinitely irrespective of whether the State provided any treatment to him.
Comstock , this type of indefinite confinement was upheld for someone previously convicted on child pornography charges; this time a federal law was involved—the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act.
In the US, offenders with pedophilia are more likely to be recommended for civil commitment than non-pedophilic offenders.
About half of committed offenders have a diagnosis of pedophilia. Pedophilia is one of the most stigmatized mental disorders. They found that the word pedophile appeared only rarely in The New York Times and Le Monde before , with zero mentions in Social attitudes towards child sexual abuse are extremely negative, with some surveys ranking it as morally worse than murder.
However, a study concluded that the public was well-informed on some aspects of these subjects. The words pedophile and pedophilia are commonly used informally to describe an adult's sexual interest in pubescent or post-pubescent teenagers.
The terms hebephilia or ephebophilia may be more accurate in these cases. Another common usage of pedophilia is to refer to the act of sexual abuse itself,  rather than the medical meaning, which is a preference for prepubescents on the part of the older individual see above for an explanation of the distinction.
From the late s to early s, several pedophile membership organizations advocated age of consent reform to lower or abolish age of consent laws,    as well as for the acceptance of pedophilia as a sexual orientation rather than a psychological disorder ,  and for the legalization of child pornography.
Anti-pedophile activism encompasses opposition against pedophiles, against pedophile advocacy groups, and against other phenomena that are seen as related to pedophilia, such as child pornography and child sexual abuse.
High-profile media attention to pedophilia has led to incidents of moral panic , particularly following reports of pedophilia associated with Satanic ritual abuse and day care sex abuse.
In , following a media campaign of "naming and shaming" suspected pedophiles in the UK, hundreds of residents took to the streets in protest against suspected pedophiles, eventually escalating to violent conduct requiring police intervention.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Boylover. Primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children. This article is about the sexual preference toward prepubescent children.
It is not to be confused with hebephilia or ephebophilia. See also: Category:Pedophile activism and List of pedophile and pederast advocacy organizations.
Main article: Anti-pedophile activism. Criminological and Forensic Psychology. LIT Verlag Münster. Archived from the original on 3 June Der Spiegel in German.
Die Welt in German. Süddeutsche Zeitung in German. Archived from the original on 10 June Hamburg: Argument.
Corriere della Sera , Archived from the original on November 15, BBC news. Archived from the original on 13 August Retrieved 18 November Archived from the original on 27 June Archived from the original on 28 October Archived from the original on 5 May The Daily Telegraph.
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