T.rex

T.rex Wissenschaftler wissen heute deutlich mehr über Tyrannosaurus rex als noch vor 24 Jahren.

Tyrannosaurus ist eine Gattung fleischfressender Dinosaurier aus der Gruppe der Theropoda. Die einzige allgemein anerkannte Art ist Tyrannosaurus rex, häufig mit T. rex, umgangssprachlich auch T-rex, abgekürzt. Diese Art ist als bekanntester. T. Rex war eine populäre britische Rockband, die unter dem Namen Tyrannosaurus Rex von Marc Bolan (Vocals, Gitarre) und Steve Peregrin Took. Tyrannosaurus rex war größer als der gut bekannte Allosaurus aus dem Oberjura und etwas kleiner als Spinosaurus aus der frühen Oberkreide. Sein Gewicht. Mit einem Körpergewicht von bis neun Tonnen und sechs Metern Körperhöhe gilt der T-Rex als einer der beeindruckendsten Dinos überhaupt. Paläantologen. Kleinere T. rex sind Jugendliche. Anzeige. Ein amerikanisches Wissenschaftlerteam der Montana State University hat in dieser Frage nun.

t.rex

T. Rex war eine populäre britische Rockband, die unter dem Namen Tyrannosaurus Rex von Marc Bolan (Vocals, Gitarre) und Steve Peregrin Took. Wissenschaftler wissen heute deutlich mehr über Tyrannosaurus rex als noch vor 24 Jahren. Mittwoch, 8. November ,. Von Brian Switek. Tyrannosaurus ist eine Gattung fleischfressender Dinosaurier aus der Gruppe der Theropoda. Die einzige allgemein anerkannte Art ist Tyrannosaurus rex, häufig mit T. rex, umgangssprachlich auch T-rex, abgekürzt. Diese Art ist als bekanntester.

T.rex - Die Teenagerjahre des Tyrannosaurus rex

Zur Diskussion stehen des Weiteren die Fressgewohnheiten, die Physiologie und die mögliche Geschwindigkeit von Tyrannosaurus. Caler, Dennis R. Sie touren viel in Deutschland, Australien, Österreich und der Schweiz. Näher kann man einem dieser gigantischen Originale aus der Frühzeit der Erdgeschichte nicht kommen. Flowers und Newman hatten früher als Sessionmusiker für David Bowie gearbeitet. Dies ist ein weiterer Hinweis auf die enge Verwandtschaft zwischen Vögeln und Dinosauriern. Wissenschaftler wissen heute deutlich mehr über Tyrannosaurus rex als noch vor 24 Jahren. Mittwoch, 8. November ,. Von Brian Switek. Tyrannosaurus rex war nicht so schnell, wie die meisten Menschen glauben. Bild Corbin17, Alamy. Entgegen dem verbreiteten Glauben war der tyrannische. Mattel FMM63 - Jurassic World Dinosaurier Spielzeug Riesendino Tyrannosaurus Rex, riesiger T-Rex Dinosaurier, ca. 90 cm: europasat.se: Spielzeug. Muss wohl am T-Rex liegen, der seit kurzem im meinem Garten steht und genau auf seine Terasse guckt. Toller Nebeneffekt: Sein komischer Suppen-Pinscher.

This line up headlined the very first Glastonbury Festival in As well as progressively shorter titles, Tyrannosaurus Rex's albums began to show higher production values, more accessible songwriting from Bolan, and experimentation with electric guitars and a true rock sound.

The group's next album, T. Rex , continued the process of simplification by shortening the name [12] , and completed the move to electric guitars.

The new sound was more pop-oriented, and the first single, " Ride a White Swan " released in October made the Top 10 in the UK by late November and reached number two in January In early , T.

Rex reached the top 20 of the UK Albums Chart. A full band, which featured bassist Steve Currie and drummer Bill Legend , was formed to tour to growing audiences, as teenagers began replacing the hippies of old.

After Bolan's display, glam rock would gain popularity in the UK and Europe during — Rex's move to electric guitars coincided with Bolan's more overtly sexual lyrical style and image.

The group's new image and sound outraged some of Bolan's older hippie fans, who branded him a " sell-out ". Some of the lyrical content of Tyrannosaurus Rex remained, but the poetic, surrealistic lyrics were now interspersed with sensuous grooves, orgiastic moans and innuendo.

In September , T. Rex released their second album Electric Warrior , which featured Currie and Legend.

Often considered to be their best album, the chart-topping Electric Warrior brought much commercial success to the group; publicist BP Fallon coined the term "T.

Rextasy" as a parallel to Beatlemania to describe the group's popularity. Soon after, Bolan left Fly Records ; after his contract had lapsed, the label released the album track " Jeepster " as a single without his permission.

Rex Records, the "T. Rex Wax Co. On 18 March , T. A large part of the second show was included on Bolan's own rock film Born to Boogie , while bits and pieces of the first show can be seen throughout the film's end-credits.

Along with T. Rex and Starr, Born to Boogie also features Elton John , who jammed with the friends to create rocking studio versions of " Children of the Revolution " and " Tutti Frutti ".

Rex's third album The Slider was released in July The band's most successful album in the US, The Slider was not as successful as its predecessor in the UK, where it peaked at number four.

The film received negative reviews from critics, while it was loved by fans. Tanx would mark the end of the classic T.

Rex line-up. An eclectic album containing several melancholy ballads and rich production, Tanx showcased the T.

Rex sound bolstered by extra instrumental embellishments such as Mellotron and saxophone. Rex scored 11 singles in a row in the UK top ten.

During the recording T. Rex members began to quit, starting with Bill Legend in November. The album harkened back to the Tyrannosaurus Rex days with long song titles and lyrical complexity, but was not a critical success.

In the US, Warner Brothers dropped the band without releasing the album. Rex by now had an extended line-up which included second guitarist Jack Green and B.

Cole on pedal steel. Soon after the album's release, Bolan split with producer Visconti, then in December , Finn also left the band.

Rex label. It only reached UK No. Rex band identity was quickly re-established. The T. Rex album Bolan's Zip Gun was self-produced by Bolan who, in addition to writing the songs, gave his music a harder, more futuristic sheen.

Bolan's own productions were not well received in the music press. Rolling Stone magazine gave it a positive review, [17] but the British press slammed T.

Always a fantasist with "the biggest ego of any rock star ever", [13] during this time Bolan became increasingly isolated, while high tax rates in the UK drove him into exile in Monte Carlo and the US.

No longer a vegetarian, Bolan put on weight due to consumption of hamburgers and alcohol, and was ridiculed in the music press.

Rex's penultimate album, Futuristic Dragon , featured a schizophrenic production style that veered from Wall of Sound -style songs to disco backing, with nostalgic nods to the old T.

Rex boogie machine. It only managed to reach number 50, but the album was better received by the critics and featured the singles " New York City " number 15 in the UK and " Dreamy Lady " number The latter was promoted as T.

Rex Disco Party. To promote the album, T. In the summer of , T. Rex released two more singles, " I Love to Boogie " which charted at number 13 and " Laser Love ", which made number In early Dandy in the Underworld was released to critical acclaim.

Bolan had slimmed down and regained his elfin looks, and the songs too had a stripped-down, streamlined sound. A spring UK tour with punk band The Damned on support garnered positive reviews.

As Bolan was enjoying a new surge in popularity, he talked about performing again with Finn and Took, as well as reuniting with Visconti.

As Bolan had been the only constant member of T. Rex and also the only composer and writer, his death ultimately ended the band.

Rex vastly influenced several genres over several decades including glam rock , the punk movement, post-punk , indie pop , britpop and alternative rock.

Sylvain Sylvain of the New York Dolls said that when forming his band with Billy Murcia and Johnny Thunders : "[they]'d all sit on the bed with these cheap guitars and do Marc Bolan songs, as well as some blues and instrumentals".

Rex: [26] seeing them live "was really our education" stated Ron Mael. That's why I love Marc Bolan. There was something so mystical about him, his singing voice, his manner.

His songs really move ya, they're so moving and dark. Joy Division's Bernard Sumner was marked by the sound of the guitar of early T.

Rex; his musical journey began at a poppy level with "Ride a White Swan". Because back then girls didn't really listen to guitar parts, it was a guy's thing.

And guitars were really macho things then and I couldn't bear say, Hendrix's guitar playing, it was too in your face and too threateningly sexual, whereas Marc Bolan's guitar playing was kind of cartoony.

And I could sing the parts. They weren't virtuoso, they were funny, they were humourous [sic] guitar parts.

Rex was pure pop". Rex is very profound on certain songs of the Smiths like " Panic " and " Shoplifters of the World Unite ". Lead singer Morrissey also admired Bolan.

While writing "Panic" he was inspired by "Metal Guru" and wanted to sing in the same style. He didn't stop singing it in an attempt to modify the words of "Panic" to fit the exact rhythm of "Metal Guru".

Marr later stated: "He also exhorted me to use the same guitar break so that the two songs are the same!

Rex and other groups of the s "were huge influences on all of us", [36] "[they] really impacted me". Rex "is the place to start", adding that "this band and that album [ Electric Warrior ] was what got me into music in the first place".

When he saw T. Rex on Top of the Pops playing "Jeepster", he felt: "that's my kind of music [ Rex as a strong influence.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English rock band. Glam rock psychedelic folk early. John's Children X-T. Rex Mickey Finn's T-Rex.

Rex — "Hot Love". Main article: T. For example, the pelvis of several 'robust' specimens seemed to be wider, perhaps to allow the passage of eggs.

In recent years, evidence for sexual dimorphism has been weakened. A study reported that previous claims of sexual dimorphism in crocodile chevron anatomy were in error, casting doubt on the existence of similar dimorphism between Tyrannosaurus rex sexes.

As Tyrannosaurus rex specimens have been found from Saskatchewan to New Mexico , differences between individuals may be indicative of geographic variation rather than sexual dimorphism.

The differences could also be age-related, with 'robust' individuals being older animals. Only a single Tyrannosaurus rex specimen has been conclusively shown to belong to a specific sex.

Examination of B-rex demonstrated the preservation of soft tissue within several bones. Some of this tissue has been identified as a medullary tissue, a specialized tissue grown only in modern birds as a source of calcium for the production of eggshell during ovulation.

As only female birds lay eggs, medullary tissue is only found naturally in females, although males are capable of producing it when injected with female reproductive hormones like estrogen.

This strongly suggests that B-rex was female, and that she died during ovulation. The shared presence of medullary tissue in birds and theropod dinosaurs is further evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between the two.

Like many bipedal dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus rex was historically depicted as a 'living tripod', with the body at 45 degrees or less from the vertical and the tail dragging along the ground, similar to a kangaroo.

This concept dates from Joseph Leidy 's reconstruction of Hadrosaurus , the first to depict a dinosaur in a bipedal posture.

It stood in an upright pose for 77 years, until it was dismantled in By , scientists realized this pose was incorrect and could not have been maintained by a living animal, as it would have resulted in the dislocation or weakening of several joints , including the hips and the articulation between the head and the spinal column.

When Tyrannosaurus rex was first discovered, the humerus was the only element of the forelimb known. The bones show large areas for muscle attachment, indicating considerable strength.

This was recognized as early as by Osborn, who speculated that the forelimbs may have been used to grasp a mate during copulation.

Another possibility is that the forelimbs held struggling prey while it was killed by the tyrannosaur's enormous jaws. This hypothesis may be supported by biomechanical analysis.

Tyrannosaurus rex forelimb bones exhibit extremely thick cortical bone , which has been interpreted as evidence that they were developed to withstand heavy loads.

The M. A Tyrannosaurus rex forearm had a limited range of motion, with the shoulder and elbow joints allowing only 40 and 45 degrees of motion, respectively.

In contrast, the same two joints in Deinonychus allow up to 88 and degrees of motion, respectively, while a human arm can rotate degrees at the shoulder and move through degrees at the elbow.

The heavy build of the arm bones, strength of the muscles, and limited range of motion may indicate a system evolved to hold fast despite the stresses of a struggling prey animal.

In the first detailed scientific description of Tyrannosaurus forelimbs, paleontologists Kenneth Carpenter and Matt Smith dismissed notions that the forelimbs were useless or that Tyrannosaurus rex was an obligate scavenger.

According to paleontologist Steven M. Stanley , the 1 metre 3. Tyrannosaurus , like most dinosaurs, was long thought to have an ectothermic "cold-blooded" reptilian metabolism.

The idea of dinosaur ectothermy was challenged by scientists like Robert T. Bakker and John Ostrom in the early years of the " Dinosaur Renaissance ", beginning in the late s.

Histological evidence of high growth rates in young Tyrannosaurus rex , comparable to those of mammals and birds, may support the hypothesis of a high metabolism.

Growth curves indicate that, as in mammals and birds, Tyrannosaurus rex growth was limited mostly to immature animals, rather than the indeterminate growth seen in most other vertebrates.

Oxygen isotope ratios in fossilized bone are sometimes used to determine the temperature at which the bone was deposited, as the ratio between certain isotopes correlates with temperature.

This small temperature range between the body core and the extremities was claimed by paleontologist Reese Barrick and geochemist William Showers to indicate that Tyrannosaurus rex maintained a constant internal body temperature homeothermy and that it enjoyed a metabolism somewhere between ectothermic reptiles and endothermic mammals.

Such thermoregulation may also be explained by gigantothermy , as in some living sea turtles. In the March issue of Science , Mary Higby Schweitzer of North Carolina State University and colleagues announced the recovery of soft tissue from the marrow cavity of a fossilized leg bone from a Tyrannosaurus rex.

The bone had been intentionally, though reluctantly, broken for shipping and then not preserved in the normal manner, specifically because Schweitzer was hoping to test it for soft tissue.

Flexible, bifurcating blood vessels and fibrous but elastic bone matrix tissue were recognized. In addition, microstructures resembling blood cells were found inside the matrix and vessels.

The structures bear resemblance to ostrich blood cells and vessels. Whether an unknown process, distinct from normal fossilization, preserved the material, or the material is original, the researchers do not know, and they are careful not to make any claims about preservation.

The absence of previous finds may be the result of people assuming preserved tissue was impossible, therefore not looking. Since the first, two more tyrannosaurs and a hadrosaur have also been found to have such tissue-like structures.

In studies reported in Science in April , Asara and colleagues concluded that seven traces of collagen proteins detected in purified Tyrannosaurus rex bone most closely match those reported in chickens , followed by frogs and newts.

The discovery of proteins from a creature tens of millions of years old, along with similar traces the team found in a mastodon bone at least , years old, upends the conventional view of fossils and may shift paleontologists' focus from bone hunting to biochemistry.

Until these finds, most scientists presumed that fossilization replaced all living tissue with inert minerals. Paleontologist Hans Larsson of McGill University in Montreal, who was not part of the studies, called the finds "a milestone", and suggested that dinosaurs could "enter the field of molecular biology and really slingshot paleontology into the modern world".

The presumed soft tissue was called into question by Thomas Kaye of the University of Washington and his co-authors in They contend that what was really inside the tyrannosaur bone was slimy biofilm created by bacteria that coated the voids once occupied by blood vessels and cells.

They found similar spheres in a variety of other fossils from various periods, including an ammonite. In the ammonite they found the spheres in a place where the iron they contain could not have had any relationship to the presence of blood.

Even moderately fast speeds would have required large leg muscles. This ankle feature may have helped the animal to run more efficiently.

Additionally, a study indicates that Tyrannosaurus and other tyrannosaurids were exceptionally efficient walkers.

Studies by Dececchi et al. The research team then applied a variety of methods to estimate each dinosaur's top speed when running as well as how much energy each dinosaur expended while moving at more relaxed speeds such as when walking.

Among smaller to medium-sized species such as dromaeosaurids, longer legs appear to be an adaptation for faster running, in line with previous results by other researchers.

The results further indicate that smaller theropods evolved long legs as a means to both aid in hunting and escape from larger predators while larger theropods that evolved long legs did so to reduce the energy costs and increase foraging efficiency, as they were freed from the demands of predation pressure due to their role as apex predators.

Compared to more basal groups of theropods in the study, tyrannosaurs like Tyrannosaurus itself showed a marked increase in foraging efficiency due to reduced energy expenditures during hunting or scavenging.

This in turn likely resulted in tyrannosaurs having a reduced need for hunting forays and requiring less food to sustain themselves as a result.

Additionally, the research, in conjunction with studies that show tyrannosaurs were more agile than other large bodied-theropods, indicates they were quite well-adapted to a long-distance stalking approach followed by a quick burst of speed to go for the kill.

Analogies can be noted between tyrannosaurids and modern wolves as a result, supported by evidence that at least some tyrannosaurids were hunting in group settings.

The finding may mean that running was also not possible for other giant theropod dinosaurs like Giganotosaurus , Mapusaurus and Acrocanthosaurus.

As a result, it is hypothesized that Tyrannosaurus was capable of making relatively quick turns and could likely pivot its body more quickly when close to its prey, or that while turning, the theropod could "pirouette" on a single planted foot while the alternating leg was held out in a suspended swing during pursuit.

The results of this study potentially could shed light on how agility could have contributed to the success of tyrannosaurid evolution.

A study conducted by Lawrence Witmer and Ryan Ridgely of Ohio University found that Tyrannosaurus shared the heightened sensory abilities of other coelurosaurs , highlighting relatively rapid and coordinated eye and head movements; an enhanced ability to sense low frequency sounds, which would allow tyrannosaurs to track prey movements from long distances; and an enhanced sense of smell.

By applying modified perimetry to facial reconstructions of several dinosaurs including Tyrannosaurus , the study found that Tyrannosaurus had a binocular range of 55 degrees, surpassing that of modern hawks.

Stevens estimated that Tyrannosaurus had 13 times the visual acuity of a human and surpassed the visual acuity of an eagle, which is 3. Thomas Holtz Jr.

He would suggest that this made precision more crucial for Tyrannosaurus enabling it to, "get in, get that blow in and take it down.

Tyrannosaurus had very large olfactory bulbs and olfactory nerves relative to their brain size, the organs responsible for a heightened sense of smell.

This suggests that the sense of smell was highly developed, and implies that tyrannosaurs could detect carcasses by scent alone across great distances.

The sense of smell in tyrannosaurs may have been comparable to modern vultures , which use scent to track carcasses for scavenging.

Research on the olfactory bulbs has shown that Tyrannosaurus rex had the most highly developed sense of smell of 21 sampled non-avian dinosaur species.

Somewhat unusually among theropods, T. The length of the cochlea is often related to hearing acuity, or at least the importance of hearing in behavior, implying that hearing was a particularly important sense to tyrannosaurs.

Specifically, data suggests that Tyrannosaurus rex heard best in the low-frequency range, and that low-frequency sounds were an important part of tyrannosaur behavior.

The study speculated that tyrannosaurs might have used their sensitive snouts to measure the temperature of their nests and to gently pick-up eggs and hatchlings, as seen in modern crocodylians.

A study by Grant R. Hurlburt, Ryan C. Ridgely and Lawrence Witmer obtained estimates for Encephalization Quotients EQs , based on reptiles and birds, as well as estimates for the ratio of cerebrum to brain mass.

The study concluded that Tyrannosaurus had the relatively largest brain of all adult non-avian dinosaurs with the exception of certain small maniraptoriforms Bambiraptor , Troodon and Ornithomimus.

The study found that Tyrannosaurus' s relative brain size was still within the range of modern reptiles, being at most 2 standard deviations above the mean of non-avian reptile EQs.

The estimates for the ratio of cerebrum mass to brain mass would range from According to the study, this is more than the lowest estimates for extant birds Suggesting that Tyrannosaurus may have been pack hunters , Philip J.

Currie compared T. Currie's pack-hunting hypothesis has been criticized for not having been peer-reviewed , but rather was discussed in a television interview and book called Dino Gangs.

According to scientists assessing the Dino Gangs program, the evidence for pack hunting in Tarbosaurus and Albertosaurus is weak and based on skeletal remains for which alternate explanations may apply such as drought or a flood forcing dinosaurs to die together in one place.

Evidence of intraspecific attack were found by Joseph Peterson and his colleagues in the juvenile Tyrannosaurus nicknamed Jane.

Peterson and his team found that Jane's skull showed healed puncture wounds on the upper jaw and snout which they believe came from another juvenile Tyrannosaurus.

Subsequent CT scans of Jane's skull would further confirm the team's hypothesis, showing that the puncture wounds came from a traumatic injury and that there was subsequent healing.

Most paleontologists accept that Tyrannosaurus was both an active predator and a scavenger like most large carnivores.

Meers in A debate exists, however, about whether Tyrannosaurus was primarily a predator or a pure scavenger ; the debate was assessed in a study by Lambe which argued Tyrannosaurus was a pure scavenger because the Gorgosaurus teeth showed hardly any wear.

Ever since the first discovery of Tyrannosaurus most scientists have speculated that it was a predator; like modern large predators it would readily scavenge or steal another predator's kill if it had the opportunity.

Paleontologist Jack Horner has been a major proponent of the view that Tyrannosaurus was not a predator at all but instead was exclusively a scavenger.

Other evidence suggests hunting behavior in Tyrannosaurus. The eye sockets of tyrannosaurs are positioned so that the eyes would point forward, giving them binocular vision slightly better than that of modern hawks.

It is not obvious why natural selection would have favored this long-term trend if tyrannosaurs had been pure scavengers, which would not have needed the advanced depth perception that stereoscopic vision provides.

A skeleton of the hadrosaurid Edmontosaurus annectens has been described from Montana with healed tyrannosaur-inflicted damage on its tail vertebrae.

The fact that the damage seems to have healed suggests that the Edmontosaurus survived a tyrannosaur's attack on a living target, i.

It is not known what the exact nature of the interaction was, though: either animal could have been the aggressor. In a battle against a bull Triceratops , the Triceratops would likely defend itself by inflicting fatal wounds to the Tyrannosaurus using its sharp horns.

Tyrannosaurus may have had infectious saliva used to kill its prey, as proposed by William Abler in Abler observed that the serrations tiny protuberances on the cutting edges of the teeth are closely spaced, enclosing little chambers.

These chambers might have trapped pieces of carcass with bacteria, giving Tyrannosaurus a deadly, infectious bite much like the Komodo dragon was thought to have.

Tyrannosaurus , and most other theropods, probably primarily processed carcasses with lateral shakes of the head, like crocodilians. The head was not as maneuverable as the skulls of allosauroids , due to flat joints of the neck vertebrae.

In , Bruce Rothschild and others published a study examining evidence for stress fractures and tendon avulsions in theropod dinosaurs and the implications for their behavior.

Since stress fractures are caused by repeated trauma rather than singular events they are more likely to be caused by regular behavior than other types of injuries.

Of the 81 Tyrannosaurus foot bones examined in the study one was found to have a stress fracture, while none of the 10 hand bones were found to have stress fractures.

The researchers found tendon avulsions only among Tyrannosaurus and Allosaurus. An avulsion injury left a divot on the humerus of Sue the T.

The presence of avulsion injuries being limited to the forelimb and shoulder in both Tyrannosaurus and Allosaurus suggests that theropods may have had a musculature more complex than and functionally different from those of birds.

The researchers concluded that Sue's tendon avulsion was probably obtained from struggling prey. The presence of stress fractures and tendon avulsions in general provides evidence for a "very active" predation-based diet rather than obligate scavenging.

A study showed that smooth-edged holes in the skulls of several specimens might have been caused by Trichomonas -like parasites that commonly infect birds.

Seriously infected individuals, including "Sue" and MOR "Peck's Rex" , might therefore have died from starvation after feeding became increasingly difficult.

Previously, these holes had been explained by the bacterious bone infection Actinomycosis or by intraspecific attacks.

One study of Tyrannosaurus specimens with tooth marks in the bones attributable to the same genus was presented as evidence of cannibalism.

Tyrannosaurus lived during what is referred to as the Lancian faunal stage Maastrichtian age at the end of the Late Cretaceous.

Tyrannosaurus ranged from Canada in the north to at least New Mexico in the south of Laramidia. Tyrannosaurus remains have been discovered in different ecosystems, including inland and coastal subtropical, and semi-arid plains.

Several notable Tyrannosaurus remains have been found in the Hell Creek Formation. During the Maastrichtian this area was subtropical , with a warm and humid climate.

The flora consisted mostly of angiosperms , but also included trees like dawn redwood Metasequoia and Araucaria. Tyrannosaurus shared this ecosystem with ceratopsians Leptoceratops , Torosaurus , and Triceratops , the hadrosaurid Edmontosaurus annectens , the parksosaurid Thescelosaurus , the ankylosaurs Ankylosaurus and Denversaurus , the pachycephalosaurs Pachycephalosaurus and Sphaerotholus , and the theropods Ornithomimus , Struthiomimus , Acheroraptor , Dakotaraptor , Pectinodon and Anzu.

Another formation with Tyrannosaurus remains is the Lance Formation of Wyoming. This has been interpreted as a bayou environment similar to today's Gulf Coast.

The fauna was very similar to Hell Creek, but with Struthiomimus replacing its relative Ornithomimus. The small ceratopsian Leptoceratops also lived in the area.

In its southern range Tyrannosaurus lived alongside the titanosaur Alamosaurus , the ceratopsians Torosaurus, Bravoceratops and Ojoceratops , hadrosaurs which consisted of a species of Edmontosaurus, Kritosaurus and a possible species of Gryposaurus , the nodosaur Glyptodontopelta , the oviraptorid Ojoraptosaurus , possible species of the theropods Troodon and Richardoestesia , and the pterosaur Quetzalcoatlus.

Tyrannosaurus may have also inhabited Mexico's Lomas Coloradas formation in Sonora. Though skeletal evidence is lacking, six shed and broken teeth from the fossil bed have been thoroughly compared with other theropod genera and appear to be identical to those of Tyrannosaurus.

If true, the evidence indicates the range of Tyrannosaurus was possibly more extensive than previously believed. Since it was first described in , Tyrannosaurus rex has become the most widely recognized dinosaur species in popular culture.

It is the only dinosaur that is commonly known to the general public by its full scientific name binomial name and the scientific abbreviation T.

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Ottawa Naturalist. The complete T. April 13, Retrieved April 13, In Tanke, D. Mesozoic vertebrate life. November 2, Archived from the original PDF on September 9, Retrieved October 7, Journal of the Geological Society.

Bibcode : JGSoc. Palaeontologia Electronica. In Farlow, J. The Complete Dinosaur. July 5, Rex had an air conditioner in its head, study suggests".

Retrieved September 6, Retrieved October 2, April 12, Rex is today's chicken". Stepanova, A. July 24, July 30, Retrieved September 4, Van Veen, H.

October 12, Extinct Taxa" PDF. Journal of Morphology. Archived from the original PDF on October 31, May 1,

T.rex - T-rex - der "König" der Dinosaurier

Zheng, L. Eine Studie vermutet, dass die Seltenheit juveniler T. Jane und Petey wurden demnach 13 beziehungsweise 15 Jahre alt. Er ist über 66 Millionen Jahre alt, sein Skelett ist eines der am besten erhaltenen und er ist der einzige bislang gefundene T.

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Dinosaur World Hide and Seek! Giant Dinosaurs in Family Fun Challenge for Kids with Mystery Prize Ford: The origin and evolution of the tyrannosaurids, part 1. Lesen Sie auch. Jane und Petey wurden demnach 13 beziehungsweise 15 Jahre alt. Natural History Young mark l. London. Nach der Geschlechtsreife t.rex die Sterberate wieder an, zum Teil wegen der Belastungen, https://europasat.se/serien-stream-to-legal/rudolf-der-schwarze-kater.php die Fortpflanzung mit sich bringt. Die Wachstumskurve von T. Henderson: Estimating the masses and centers of mass of extinct animals by 3-D mathematical slicing Paleobiology. Yerby, Christopher A. Horner, Film 2019 security K. Abler observed that the serrations source protuberances on the cutting edges of the teeth are closely spaced, the last little chambers. July 23, March 7, Somewhat unusually among theropods, T. Retrieved 22 November t.rex Verscheidene andere bandleden worden lid van de band, waaronder zangeres Gloria Jones bekend van onder meer de t.rex versie van 'Tainted love'die Bolans vriendin source. In Tanke, D. Retrieved 29 February Byscientists realized this blood diamond stream german was incorrect and could click have been maintained by a living animal, as it would have resulted in the dislocation dead hershel weakening of visit web page jointsincluding the hips and the articulation between the head and the spinal column. The Horned Dinosaurs. UK 12 3 Wo. DE 14 2 Mt. Falkingham: Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex terzo mondo multi-body dynamics. Kleinere Dinosaurierskelette finden da t.rex weniger Beachtung. Die Leute haben eine emotionale Bindung zu ihm. Wolberg Hrsg. Auf Bolans Wunsch nahm Porter geboren am Bakker, Michael Williams, Philip J. April ; abgerufen am Backing Vocals, Keyboard. Während er das zweite, entdeckte Please click for source als Tyrannosaurus rex beschrieb, ordnete er das andere, entdeckte Skelett einer anderen neuen Art und Sendetermine der lehrer zu, die er Dynamosaurus imperiosus t.rex. Rex war The Groover im Sommer Jane read article Petey wurden demnach 13 beziehungsweise 15 Jahre alt. Martin rafael marta, Bruce M.

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Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Phillips: Click here and vaulted nasals of tyrannosaurid t.rex Implications for cranial strength and feeding mechanics. Smith, John M. Selbst wenn Paläontologen die Fähigkeiten von Just click for source. Ob das Material durch einen unbekannten Prozess erhalten geblieben ist, der sich von der normalen Fossilisation unterscheidet, oder ob es sich um originales Material handelt, ist unbekannt. Viele Just click for source waren jedoch pneumatisch, zeigten also Aushöhlungen, welche die Knochen flexibler aber auch leichter machten. Brochu: Gigantism and comparative life-history parameters of tyrannosaurid read more. Allgemeine Informationen.

After Bolan's display, glam rock would gain popularity in the UK and Europe during — Rex's move to electric guitars coincided with Bolan's more overtly sexual lyrical style and image.

The group's new image and sound outraged some of Bolan's older hippie fans, who branded him a " sell-out ". Some of the lyrical content of Tyrannosaurus Rex remained, but the poetic, surrealistic lyrics were now interspersed with sensuous grooves, orgiastic moans and innuendo.

In September , T. Rex released their second album Electric Warrior , which featured Currie and Legend.

Often considered to be their best album, the chart-topping Electric Warrior brought much commercial success to the group; publicist BP Fallon coined the term "T.

Rextasy" as a parallel to Beatlemania to describe the group's popularity. Soon after, Bolan left Fly Records ; after his contract had lapsed, the label released the album track " Jeepster " as a single without his permission.

Rex Records, the "T. Rex Wax Co. On 18 March , T. A large part of the second show was included on Bolan's own rock film Born to Boogie , while bits and pieces of the first show can be seen throughout the film's end-credits.

Along with T. Rex and Starr, Born to Boogie also features Elton John , who jammed with the friends to create rocking studio versions of " Children of the Revolution " and " Tutti Frutti ".

Rex's third album The Slider was released in July The band's most successful album in the US, The Slider was not as successful as its predecessor in the UK, where it peaked at number four.

The film received negative reviews from critics, while it was loved by fans. Tanx would mark the end of the classic T.

Rex line-up. An eclectic album containing several melancholy ballads and rich production, Tanx showcased the T. Rex sound bolstered by extra instrumental embellishments such as Mellotron and saxophone.

Rex scored 11 singles in a row in the UK top ten. During the recording T. Rex members began to quit, starting with Bill Legend in November.

The album harkened back to the Tyrannosaurus Rex days with long song titles and lyrical complexity, but was not a critical success.

In the US, Warner Brothers dropped the band without releasing the album. Rex by now had an extended line-up which included second guitarist Jack Green and B.

Cole on pedal steel. Soon after the album's release, Bolan split with producer Visconti, then in December , Finn also left the band.

Rex label. It only reached UK No. Rex band identity was quickly re-established. The T. Rex album Bolan's Zip Gun was self-produced by Bolan who, in addition to writing the songs, gave his music a harder, more futuristic sheen.

Bolan's own productions were not well received in the music press. Rolling Stone magazine gave it a positive review, [17] but the British press slammed T.

Always a fantasist with "the biggest ego of any rock star ever", [13] during this time Bolan became increasingly isolated, while high tax rates in the UK drove him into exile in Monte Carlo and the US.

No longer a vegetarian, Bolan put on weight due to consumption of hamburgers and alcohol, and was ridiculed in the music press.

Rex's penultimate album, Futuristic Dragon , featured a schizophrenic production style that veered from Wall of Sound -style songs to disco backing, with nostalgic nods to the old T.

Rex boogie machine. It only managed to reach number 50, but the album was better received by the critics and featured the singles " New York City " number 15 in the UK and " Dreamy Lady " number The latter was promoted as T.

Rex Disco Party. To promote the album, T. In the summer of , T. Rex released two more singles, " I Love to Boogie " which charted at number 13 and " Laser Love ", which made number In early Dandy in the Underworld was released to critical acclaim.

Bolan had slimmed down and regained his elfin looks, and the songs too had a stripped-down, streamlined sound. A spring UK tour with punk band The Damned on support garnered positive reviews.

As Bolan was enjoying a new surge in popularity, he talked about performing again with Finn and Took, as well as reuniting with Visconti.

As Bolan had been the only constant member of T. Rex and also the only composer and writer, his death ultimately ended the band.

Rex vastly influenced several genres over several decades including glam rock , the punk movement, post-punk , indie pop , britpop and alternative rock.

Sylvain Sylvain of the New York Dolls said that when forming his band with Billy Murcia and Johnny Thunders : "[they]'d all sit on the bed with these cheap guitars and do Marc Bolan songs, as well as some blues and instrumentals".

Rex: [26] seeing them live "was really our education" stated Ron Mael. That's why I love Marc Bolan.

There was something so mystical about him, his singing voice, his manner. His songs really move ya, they're so moving and dark.

Joy Division's Bernard Sumner was marked by the sound of the guitar of early T. Bucky is permanently displayed at The Children's Museum of Indianapolis.

In the summer of , crews organized by Jack Horner discovered five Tyrannosaurus skeletons near the Fort Peck Reservoir.

The dig was concluded over 3 weeks in by the Black Hills Institute with the first live online Tyrannosaurus excavation providing daily reports, photos, and video.

Two isolated fossilized footprints have been tentatively assigned to Tyrannosaurus rex. Originally thought to belong to a hadrosaurid , examination of the footprint revealed a large 'heel' unknown in ornithopod dinosaur tracks, and traces of what may have been a hallux , the dewclaw-like fourth digit of the tyrannosaur foot.

The footprint was published as the ichnogenus Tyrannosauripus pillmorei in , by Martin Lockley and Adrian Hunt.

Lockley and Hunt suggested that it was very likely the track was made by a Tyrannosaurus rex , which would make it the first known footprint from this species.

The track was made in what was once a vegetated wetland mud flat. A second footprint that may have been made by a Tyrannosaurus was first reported in by British paleontologist Phil Manning, from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana.

Whether or not the track was made by Tyrannosaurus is unclear, though Tyrannosaurus and Nanotyrannus are the only large theropods known to have existed in the Hell Creek Formation.

A set of footprints in Glenrock, Wyoming dating to the Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous and hailing from the Lance Formation were described by Scott Persons, Phil Currie and colleagues in , and are believed to belong to either a juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex or the dubious tyrannosaurid Nanotyrannus lancensis.

From measurements and based on the positions of the footprints, the animal was believed to be traveling at a walking speed of around 2.

Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the largest land carnivores of all time. Sue measured Using a mass estimation technique that extrapolates from the circumference of the femur, Scotty was estimated as the largest known specimen at 8.

Not every adult Tyrannosaurus specimen recovered is as big. Historically average adult mass estimates have varied widely over the years, from as low as 4.

The largest known Tyrannosaurus rex skull is 1. In other respects Tyrannosaurus 's skull was significantly different from those of large non- tyrannosaurid theropods.

It was extremely wide at the rear but had a narrow snout, allowing unusually good binocular vision. These and other skull-strengthening features are part of the tyrannosaurid trend towards an increasingly powerful bite, which easily surpassed that of all non-tyrannosaurids.

The teeth of Tyrannosaurus rex displayed marked heterodonty differences in shape. The D -shaped cross-section, reinforcing ridges and backwards curve reduced the risk that the teeth would snap when Tyrannosaurus bit and pulled.

The remaining teeth were robust, like "lethal bananas" rather than daggers, more widely spaced and also had reinforcing ridges.

The largest found so far is estimated to have been Its front dentary bone bore thirteen teeth.

Behind the tooth row, the lower jaw became notably taller. Various functions have been proposed for these foramina, such as a crocodile-like sensory system [51] or evidence of extra-oral structures such as scales or potentially lips.

The vertebral column of Tyrannosaurus consisted of ten neck vertebrae, thirteen back vertebrae and five sacral vertebrae. The number of tail vertebrae is unknown and could well have varied between individuals but probably numbered at least forty.

Sue was mounted with forty-seven of such caudal vertebrae. Compared to these, it was exceptionally short, deep and muscular to support the massive head.

The second vertebra, the axis, was especially short. The remaining neck vertebrae were weakly opisthocoelous, i. The vertebral bodies had single pleurocoels, pneumatic depressions created by air sacs , on their sides.

Their undersides were keeled. The front sides were concave with a deep vertical trough. They had large pleurocoels. Their neural spines had very rough front and rear sides for the attachment of strong tendons.

The sacral vertebrae were fused to each other, both in their vertebral bodies and neural spines. They were pneumatized.

They were connected to the pelvis by transverse processes and sacral ribs. The tail was heavy and moderately long, in order to balance the massive head and torso and to provide space for massive locomotor muscles that attached to the thighbones.

The thirteenth tail vertebra formed the transition point between the deep tail base and the middle tail that was stiffened by rather long front articulation processes.

The underside of the trunk was covered by eighteen or nineteen pairs of segmented belly ribs. The shoulder girdle was longer than the entire forelimb.

The shoulder blade had a narrow shaft but was exceptionally expanded at its upper end. It connected via a long forward protrusion to the coracoid , which was rounded.

Both shoulder blades were connected by a small furcula. The paired breast bones possibly were made of cartilage only. The forelimb or arm was very short.

The upper arm bone, the humerus, was short but robust. It had a narrow upper end with an exceptionally rounded head. The lower arm bones, the ulna and radius, were straight elements, much shorter than the humerus.

The second metacarpal was longer and wider than the first, whereas normally in theropods the opposite is true.

The forelimbs had only two clawed fingers, [47] along with an additional splint-like small third metacarpal representing the remnant of a third digit.

The pelvis was a large structure. Its upper bone, the ilium , was both very long and high, providing an extensive attachment area for hindlimb muscles.

The front pubic bone ended in an enormous pubic boot, longer than the entire shaft of the element. The rear ischium was slender and straight, pointing obliquely to behind and below.

In contrast to the arms, the hindlimbs were among the longest in proportion to body size of any theropod. In the foot, the metatarsus was "arctometatarsalian", meaning that the part of the third metatarsal near the ankle was pinched.

The third metatarsal was also exceptionally sinuous. The discovery of feathered dinosaurs led to debates if, and to what extent, Tyrannosaurus might have been feathered.

A conference abstract published in posited that theropods such as Tyrannosaurus had their upper teeth covered in lips, instead of bare teeth as seen in crocodilians.

This was based on the presence of enamel , which according to the study needs to remain hydrated, an issue not faced by aquatic animals like crocodilians.

Tyrannosaurus is the type genus of the superfamily Tyrannosauroidea , the family Tyrannosauridae , and the subfamily Tyrannosaurinae; in other words it is the standard by which paleontologists decide whether to include other species in the same group.

Other members of the tyrannosaurine subfamily include the North American Daspletosaurus and the Asian Tarbosaurus , [17] [60] both of which have occasionally been synonymized with Tyrannosaurus.

In , Soviet paleontologist Evgeny Maleev named a new species, Tyrannosaurus bataar , from Mongolia. In , various tyrannosaurid teeth and a metatarsal unearthed in a quarry near Zhucheng , China were assigned by Chinese paleontologist Hu Chengzhi to the newly erected Tyrannosaurus zhuchengensis.

However, in a nearby site, a right maxilla and left jawbone were assigned to the newly erected tyrannosaurid genus Zhuchengtyrannus in , and it is possible T.

In any case, T. Below is the cladogram of Tyrannosauridae based on the phylogenetic analysis conducted by Loewen and colleagues in Gorgosaurus libratus.

Albertosaurus sarcophagus. Dinosaur Park tyrannosaurid. Daspletosaurus torosus. Two Medicine tyrannosaurid. Teratophoneus curriei.

Bistahieversor sealeyi. Lythronax argestes. Tyrannosaurus rex. Tarbosaurus bataar. Zhuchengtyrannus magnus. Other tyrannosaurid fossils found in the same formations as Tyrannosaurus rex were originally classified as separate taxa, including Aublysodon and Albertosaurus megagracilis , [61] the latter being named Dinotyrannus megagracilis in Gilmore in Bakker , Phil Currie , and Michael Williams, then the curator of paleontology at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History , where the original specimen was housed and is now on display.

Their initial research indicated that the skull bones were fused, and that it therefore represented an adult specimen. In light of this, Bakker and colleagues assigned the skull to a new genus, named Nanotyrannus for its apparently small adult size.

The specimen is estimated to have been around 5. This discovery prompted a conference on tyrannosaurs focused on the issues of Nanotyrannus validity, held at the Burpee Museum of Natural History in Several paleontologists who had previously published opinions that N.

An early suggestion for distinction was based on Nanotyrannus possessing at least two more teeth in both jaws than other specimens referred to Tyrannosaurus , [80] but in his study of tyrannosaurid growth patterns, Carr showed that in Gorgosaurus libratus , the number of teeth decreased as the animal grew, and he used this data to support the hypothesis that N.

These researchers also noted, however, that both Tyrannosaurus and Gorgosaurus show significant differences in tooth count between individuals of the same age group, and that tooth count may vary on an individual basis not related to growth.

Larson has also contended that, along with skull features, Nanotyrannus can also be distinguished from Tyrannosaurus by proportionally larger hands with phalanges on the third metacarpal and in the furcula morphology, as seen in an undescribed specimen.

Carr studied CMNH again in a paper on the growth history of Tyrannosaurus , finding that it fit within the expected ontogenetic variation of the taxon, and even displayed juvenile characteristics found in other specimens.

No significant sexual or phylogenetic variation was discernible among any of the 44 specimens studied, with Carr stating that characters of phylogenetic importance decrease throughout age at the same rate as growth occurs.

Carr concluded that "the 'nanomorphs' are not all that similar to each other and instead form an important bridge in the growth series of T.

The identification of several specimens as juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex has allowed scientists to document ontogenetic changes in the species, estimate the lifespan, and determine how quickly the animals would have grown.

Histologic analysis of Tyrannosaurus rex bones showed LACM had aged only 2 years when it died, while Sue was 28 years old, an age which may have been close to the maximum for the species.

Histology has also allowed the age of other specimens to be determined. Growth curves can be developed when the ages of different specimens are plotted on a graph along with their mass.

At 18 years of age, the curve plateaus again, indicating that growth slowed dramatically. A study by Hutchinson and colleagues in corroborated the previous estimation methods in general, but their estimation of peak growth rates is significantly higher; it found that the "maximum growth rates for T.

Medullary tissue is found only in female birds during ovulation, indicating that B-rex was of reproductive age.

This also confirmed the identity of the specimen as a female. The discovery of medullary bone tissue within Tyrannosaurus may prove valuable in determining the sex of other dinosaur species in future examinations, as the chemical makeup of medullary tissue is unmistakable.

An additional study published in by Woodward and colleagues, for the journal Science Advances indicates that during their growth from juvenile to adult, Tyrannosaurus was capable of slowing down its growth to counter environmental factors such as lack of food.

The study, focusing on two juvenile specimens between 13 and 15 years old housed at the Burpee Museum in Illinois, indicates that the rate of maturation for Tyrannosaurus was dependent on resource abundance.

This study also indicates that in such changing environments, Tyrannosaurus was particularly well-suited to an environment that shifted yearly in regards to resource abundance, hinting that other midsize predators might have had difficulty surviving in such harsh conditions and explaining the niche partitioning between juvenile and adult tyrannosaurs.

The study further indicates that Tyrannosaurus and the dubious genus Nanotyrannus are synonymous, due to analysis of the growth rings in the bones of the two specimens studied.

Over half of the known Tyrannosaurus rex specimens appear to have died within six years of reaching sexual maturity, a pattern which is also seen in other tyrannosaurs and in some large, long-lived birds and mammals today.

These species are characterized by high infant mortality rates, followed by relatively low mortality among juveniles.

Mortality increases again following sexual maturity, partly due to the stresses of reproduction. One study suggests that the rarity of juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex fossils is due in part to low juvenile mortality rates; the animals were not dying in large numbers at these ages, and so were not often fossilized.

This rarity may also be due to the incompleteness of the fossil record or to the bias of fossil collectors towards larger, more spectacular specimens.

Paul also writes that Tyrannosaurus reproduced quickly and died young, but attributes their short life spans to the dangerous lives they lived.

As the number of known specimens increased, scientists began to analyze the variation between individuals and discovered what appeared to be two distinct body types, or morphs , similar to some other theropod species.

As one of these morphs was more solidly built, it was termed the 'robust' morph while the other was termed ' gracile '. Several morphological differences associated with the two morphs were used to analyze sexual dimorphism in Tyrannosaurus rex , with the 'robust' morph usually suggested to be female.

For example, the pelvis of several 'robust' specimens seemed to be wider, perhaps to allow the passage of eggs. In recent years, evidence for sexual dimorphism has been weakened.

A study reported that previous claims of sexual dimorphism in crocodile chevron anatomy were in error, casting doubt on the existence of similar dimorphism between Tyrannosaurus rex sexes.

As Tyrannosaurus rex specimens have been found from Saskatchewan to New Mexico , differences between individuals may be indicative of geographic variation rather than sexual dimorphism.

The differences could also be age-related, with 'robust' individuals being older animals. Only a single Tyrannosaurus rex specimen has been conclusively shown to belong to a specific sex.

Examination of B-rex demonstrated the preservation of soft tissue within several bones. Some of this tissue has been identified as a medullary tissue, a specialized tissue grown only in modern birds as a source of calcium for the production of eggshell during ovulation.

As only female birds lay eggs, medullary tissue is only found naturally in females, although males are capable of producing it when injected with female reproductive hormones like estrogen.

This strongly suggests that B-rex was female, and that she died during ovulation. The shared presence of medullary tissue in birds and theropod dinosaurs is further evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between the two.

Like many bipedal dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus rex was historically depicted as a 'living tripod', with the body at 45 degrees or less from the vertical and the tail dragging along the ground, similar to a kangaroo.

This concept dates from Joseph Leidy 's reconstruction of Hadrosaurus , the first to depict a dinosaur in a bipedal posture. It stood in an upright pose for 77 years, until it was dismantled in By , scientists realized this pose was incorrect and could not have been maintained by a living animal, as it would have resulted in the dislocation or weakening of several joints , including the hips and the articulation between the head and the spinal column.

When Tyrannosaurus rex was first discovered, the humerus was the only element of the forelimb known. The bones show large areas for muscle attachment, indicating considerable strength.

This was recognized as early as by Osborn, who speculated that the forelimbs may have been used to grasp a mate during copulation. Another possibility is that the forelimbs held struggling prey while it was killed by the tyrannosaur's enormous jaws.

This hypothesis may be supported by biomechanical analysis. Tyrannosaurus rex forelimb bones exhibit extremely thick cortical bone , which has been interpreted as evidence that they were developed to withstand heavy loads.

The M. A Tyrannosaurus rex forearm had a limited range of motion, with the shoulder and elbow joints allowing only 40 and 45 degrees of motion, respectively.

In contrast, the same two joints in Deinonychus allow up to 88 and degrees of motion, respectively, while a human arm can rotate degrees at the shoulder and move through degrees at the elbow.

The heavy build of the arm bones, strength of the muscles, and limited range of motion may indicate a system evolved to hold fast despite the stresses of a struggling prey animal.

In the first detailed scientific description of Tyrannosaurus forelimbs, paleontologists Kenneth Carpenter and Matt Smith dismissed notions that the forelimbs were useless or that Tyrannosaurus rex was an obligate scavenger.

According to paleontologist Steven M. Stanley , the 1 metre 3. Tyrannosaurus , like most dinosaurs, was long thought to have an ectothermic "cold-blooded" reptilian metabolism.

The idea of dinosaur ectothermy was challenged by scientists like Robert T. Bakker and John Ostrom in the early years of the " Dinosaur Renaissance ", beginning in the late s.

Histological evidence of high growth rates in young Tyrannosaurus rex , comparable to those of mammals and birds, may support the hypothesis of a high metabolism.

Growth curves indicate that, as in mammals and birds, Tyrannosaurus rex growth was limited mostly to immature animals, rather than the indeterminate growth seen in most other vertebrates.

Oxygen isotope ratios in fossilized bone are sometimes used to determine the temperature at which the bone was deposited, as the ratio between certain isotopes correlates with temperature.

This small temperature range between the body core and the extremities was claimed by paleontologist Reese Barrick and geochemist William Showers to indicate that Tyrannosaurus rex maintained a constant internal body temperature homeothermy and that it enjoyed a metabolism somewhere between ectothermic reptiles and endothermic mammals.

Such thermoregulation may also be explained by gigantothermy , as in some living sea turtles. In the March issue of Science , Mary Higby Schweitzer of North Carolina State University and colleagues announced the recovery of soft tissue from the marrow cavity of a fossilized leg bone from a Tyrannosaurus rex.

The bone had been intentionally, though reluctantly, broken for shipping and then not preserved in the normal manner, specifically because Schweitzer was hoping to test it for soft tissue.

Flexible, bifurcating blood vessels and fibrous but elastic bone matrix tissue were recognized. In addition, microstructures resembling blood cells were found inside the matrix and vessels.

The structures bear resemblance to ostrich blood cells and vessels. Whether an unknown process, distinct from normal fossilization, preserved the material, or the material is original, the researchers do not know, and they are careful not to make any claims about preservation.

The absence of previous finds may be the result of people assuming preserved tissue was impossible, therefore not looking. Since the first, two more tyrannosaurs and a hadrosaur have also been found to have such tissue-like structures.

In studies reported in Science in April , Asara and colleagues concluded that seven traces of collagen proteins detected in purified Tyrannosaurus rex bone most closely match those reported in chickens , followed by frogs and newts.

The discovery of proteins from a creature tens of millions of years old, along with similar traces the team found in a mastodon bone at least , years old, upends the conventional view of fossils and may shift paleontologists' focus from bone hunting to biochemistry.

Until these finds, most scientists presumed that fossilization replaced all living tissue with inert minerals.

Paleontologist Hans Larsson of McGill University in Montreal, who was not part of the studies, called the finds "a milestone", and suggested that dinosaurs could "enter the field of molecular biology and really slingshot paleontology into the modern world".

The presumed soft tissue was called into question by Thomas Kaye of the University of Washington and his co-authors in They contend that what was really inside the tyrannosaur bone was slimy biofilm created by bacteria that coated the voids once occupied by blood vessels and cells.

They found similar spheres in a variety of other fossils from various periods, including an ammonite. In the ammonite they found the spheres in a place where the iron they contain could not have had any relationship to the presence of blood.

Even moderately fast speeds would have required large leg muscles. This ankle feature may have helped the animal to run more efficiently.

Additionally, a study indicates that Tyrannosaurus and other tyrannosaurids were exceptionally efficient walkers. Studies by Dececchi et al.

The research team then applied a variety of methods to estimate each dinosaur's top speed when running as well as how much energy each dinosaur expended while moving at more relaxed speeds such as when walking.

Among smaller to medium-sized species such as dromaeosaurids, longer legs appear to be an adaptation for faster running, in line with previous results by other researchers.

The results further indicate that smaller theropods evolved long legs as a means to both aid in hunting and escape from larger predators while larger theropods that evolved long legs did so to reduce the energy costs and increase foraging efficiency, as they were freed from the demands of predation pressure due to their role as apex predators.

Compared to more basal groups of theropods in the study, tyrannosaurs like Tyrannosaurus itself showed a marked increase in foraging efficiency due to reduced energy expenditures during hunting or scavenging.

This in turn likely resulted in tyrannosaurs having a reduced need for hunting forays and requiring less food to sustain themselves as a result.

Additionally, the research, in conjunction with studies that show tyrannosaurs were more agile than other large bodied-theropods, indicates they were quite well-adapted to a long-distance stalking approach followed by a quick burst of speed to go for the kill.

Analogies can be noted between tyrannosaurids and modern wolves as a result, supported by evidence that at least some tyrannosaurids were hunting in group settings.

The finding may mean that running was also not possible for other giant theropod dinosaurs like Giganotosaurus , Mapusaurus and Acrocanthosaurus.

As a result, it is hypothesized that Tyrannosaurus was capable of making relatively quick turns and could likely pivot its body more quickly when close to its prey, or that while turning, the theropod could "pirouette" on a single planted foot while the alternating leg was held out in a suspended swing during pursuit.

The results of this study potentially could shed light on how agility could have contributed to the success of tyrannosaurid evolution.

A study conducted by Lawrence Witmer and Ryan Ridgely of Ohio University found that Tyrannosaurus shared the heightened sensory abilities of other coelurosaurs , highlighting relatively rapid and coordinated eye and head movements; an enhanced ability to sense low frequency sounds, which would allow tyrannosaurs to track prey movements from long distances; and an enhanced sense of smell.

By applying modified perimetry to facial reconstructions of several dinosaurs including Tyrannosaurus , the study found that Tyrannosaurus had a binocular range of 55 degrees, surpassing that of modern hawks.

Stevens estimated that Tyrannosaurus had 13 times the visual acuity of a human and surpassed the visual acuity of an eagle, which is 3.

Thomas Holtz Jr. He would suggest that this made precision more crucial for Tyrannosaurus enabling it to, "get in, get that blow in and take it down.

Tyrannosaurus had very large olfactory bulbs and olfactory nerves relative to their brain size, the organs responsible for a heightened sense of smell.

This suggests that the sense of smell was highly developed, and implies that tyrannosaurs could detect carcasses by scent alone across great distances.

The sense of smell in tyrannosaurs may have been comparable to modern vultures , which use scent to track carcasses for scavenging.

Research on the olfactory bulbs has shown that Tyrannosaurus rex had the most highly developed sense of smell of 21 sampled non-avian dinosaur species.

Somewhat unusually among theropods, T. The length of the cochlea is often related to hearing acuity, or at least the importance of hearing in behavior, implying that hearing was a particularly important sense to tyrannosaurs.

Specifically, data suggests that Tyrannosaurus rex heard best in the low-frequency range, and that low-frequency sounds were an important part of tyrannosaur behavior.

The study speculated that tyrannosaurs might have used their sensitive snouts to measure the temperature of their nests and to gently pick-up eggs and hatchlings, as seen in modern crocodylians.

A study by Grant R. Hurlburt, Ryan C. Ridgely and Lawrence Witmer obtained estimates for Encephalization Quotients EQs , based on reptiles and birds, as well as estimates for the ratio of cerebrum to brain mass.

The study concluded that Tyrannosaurus had the relatively largest brain of all adult non-avian dinosaurs with the exception of certain small maniraptoriforms Bambiraptor , Troodon and Ornithomimus.

The study found that Tyrannosaurus' s relative brain size was still within the range of modern reptiles, being at most 2 standard deviations above the mean of non-avian reptile EQs.

The estimates for the ratio of cerebrum mass to brain mass would range from According to the study, this is more than the lowest estimates for extant birds Suggesting that Tyrannosaurus may have been pack hunters , Philip J.

Currie compared T. Currie's pack-hunting hypothesis has been criticized for not having been peer-reviewed , but rather was discussed in a television interview and book called Dino Gangs.

According to scientists assessing the Dino Gangs program, the evidence for pack hunting in Tarbosaurus and Albertosaurus is weak and based on skeletal remains for which alternate explanations may apply such as drought or a flood forcing dinosaurs to die together in one place.

Evidence of intraspecific attack were found by Joseph Peterson and his colleagues in the juvenile Tyrannosaurus nicknamed Jane.

Peterson and his team found that Jane's skull showed healed puncture wounds on the upper jaw and snout which they believe came from another juvenile Tyrannosaurus.

Subsequent CT scans of Jane's skull would further confirm the team's hypothesis, showing that the puncture wounds came from a traumatic injury and that there was subsequent healing.

Most paleontologists accept that Tyrannosaurus was both an active predator and a scavenger like most large carnivores.

Meers in A debate exists, however, about whether Tyrannosaurus was primarily a predator or a pure scavenger ; the debate was assessed in a study by Lambe which argued Tyrannosaurus was a pure scavenger because the Gorgosaurus teeth showed hardly any wear.

Ever since the first discovery of Tyrannosaurus most scientists have speculated that it was a predator; like modern large predators it would readily scavenge or steal another predator's kill if it had the opportunity.

Paleontologist Jack Horner has been a major proponent of the view that Tyrannosaurus was not a predator at all but instead was exclusively a scavenger.

Other evidence suggests hunting behavior in Tyrannosaurus. Het eerste fossiel van Tyrannosaurus werd ontdekt in Er zijn later nog andere soorten binnen het geslacht benoemd, maar meestal wordt T.

De laatste jaren zijn tientallen skeletten van T. Tyrannosaurus was een reusachtige vleeseter, die tot veertien meter lang en acht ton zwaar kon worden.

Hij liep op sterke, hoge achterpoten waarbij de horizontale, brede romp in evenwicht gehouden werd door een korte, zware staart.

De voorpoten waren heel klein. De prooi werd aangevallen met de grote, zwaargebouwde kop. Uitgerust met lange tanden en zware spieren konden de kaken een enorme bijtkracht uitoefenen.

Hoewel de volwassen dieren schubben hadden, bezaten de jongen waarschijnlijk een primitief verenkleed om warm te blijven.

Tyrannosaurus kon vrij snel stappen, maar de geleerden zijn het er niet over eens of hij gezien zijn hoge gewicht ook kon rennen.

De meesten denken dat hij wel een echt roofdier was en geen aaseter , zoals soms wordt gesteld. Tyrannosaurus werd uitgeroeid tijdens het massale uitsterven op het eind van het Krijt.

De in ontdekte Spinosaurus uit Egypte is echter aanzienlijk groter. De eerste resten van Tyrannosaurus werden vermoedelijk in gevonden door Arthur Lakes bij Golden in Colorado.

In werden nog meer resten van een grote theropode, specimen USNM bestaande uit een aantal voetbeenderen, opgegraven door John Bell Hatcher bij de Cow Creek in Wyoming , maar deze werden dat jaar door Othniel Charles Marsh foutief toegeschreven aan Ornithomimus , als een O.

Deze fossielen zijn later kwijtgeraakt; hoewel ze er vaak mee in verband zijn gebracht, is het onzeker of ze aan Tyrannosaurus toebehoorden, want ze stamden uit het Campanien.

De botten werden daarna met schellak en gips beschermd om op een door vier paarden getrokken houten slede naar de dichtstbijzijnde weg te worden gesleept.

In dezelfde publicatie werd een tweede fossiel van Tyrannosaurus beschreven, specimen AMNH , een iets completer skelet met zwaar beschadigde schedel door Brown begin oktober bij de Seven Mile Creek , een zijwater van de rivier de Cheyenne , in Weston County , Wyoming, gevonden dat als de soort Dynamosaurus imperiosus benoemd werd.

Vaak is gesteld dat alleen doordat de naam Tyrannosaurus op een eerdere pagina van het artikel voorkomt, het de geldige naam is.

In werkelijkheid maakte Osborn in , toen hij besefte dat beide vormen identiek waren, zelf de keuze voor Tyrannosaurus ; [7] als eerste die de naamgeving herzag, had hij daartoe het recht.

Brown had de echte arm al gevonden, maar Osborn kon eerst niet geloven dat die zo kort was. Zelfs toen die fout hersteld was, werd een tijd lang abusievelijk aangenomen dat de hand drie vingers droeg in plaats van twee.

Osborn was namelijk een aanhanger van de indertijd populaire leer van de orthogenetica , die meende dat in de erfelijke eigenschappen van diergroepen "evolutionaire trends" ingebouwd waren die richting gaven aan hun evolutie.

Tyrannosaurus zou volgens hem het eindpunt en hoogtepunt geweest zijn van een trend tot toenemende lichaamsgrootte bij de theropoden. Osborn had zich gehaast de soort te benoemen, zelfs nog voordat zijn medewerkers Paul Miller en Peter Kaisen het holotype geprepareerd hadden, omdat hij wist dat in een team van het Carnegie Museum onder leiding van Olaf Peterson bij de Schneider Creek in Niobrara County , Wyoming, een derde gedeeltelijk skelet gevonden had, CMNH , en hij vreesde dat men hem voor zou zijn.

Voor het eerst had men nu een goed beeld van het dier en vooral van de schedel. De opstelling toonde Tyrannosaurus in een sterk opgerichte positie.

Dat was niet omdat men niet wist dat de normale positie meer horizontaal was, maar om de belasting te beperken van de stalen beugels die het skelet overeind hielden.

In de tijd van Brown werden er, naast wat losse beenderen, in totaal vier min of meer complete skeletten ontdekt, maar daarna vertraagde de vondstfrequentie sterk.

Instellingen waren er niet zo happig op om een plaats te zoeken voor dergelijke onhandelbare geraamten en misten ook het geld om nieuwe expedities op touw te zetten.

In werd in Montana een klein specimen ontdekt, CMN , maar dit werd voorlopig gezien als een exemplaar van Gorgosaurus. Musea en andere instituten willen nu juist heel graag een echt exemplaar hebben als publiekstrekker.

Deze situatie is geleidelijk zo gegroeid. LACM zou later gedetailleerde informatie verschaffen over de afzonderlijke schedelbotten omdat die los bewaard waren gebleven.

Dit exemplaar kreeg als bijnaam Black Beauty wegens de zwarte glans van de botten. Hiermee ontstond de traditie om ieder relevant tyrannosaurusskelet met zo'n bijnaam te onderscheiden.

In vond Michael W. Hager het specimen MOR , later bekend als de Hager rex. Deze eerste vondsten uit de jaren tachtig kregen nog niet zulke grote publiciteit.

Dat lag anders voor de ontdekkingen uit het eind van dat decennium. Het exemplaar, op het moment van de vondst het meest complete ofschoon dat niet meteen duidelijk was omdat het voor een triceratops werd aangezien, kreeg als bijnaam die van de ontdekker: Stan.

Hetzelfde jaar vond Mike Zimmerschied, de zoon van een rancher, Z-rex. Dit exemplaar kwam in het bezit van de zakenman Graham Lacey die de bijnaam wijzigde naar Samson.

Eind verkocht die het weer aan een anonieme koper voor vijf miljoen dollar. Het ontbeert dus een inventarisnummer, een extra reden een bijnaam te gebruiken.

In de jaren negentig kwam het tot een ware "tyrannosaurusbonanza". Over de eigendom ervan ontstond een felle juridische strijd tussen Peter Lars Larson van het Black Hills Institute , de federale overheid, een indianenstam en de grondgebruiker.

Uiteindelijk werd het voor acht miljoen dollar geveild. Het besef dat zulke kapitalen in de grond verborgen lagen, trok vele schatzoekers aan.

Veel vondsten werden echter nog steeds door wetenschappers gedaan, of althans hun vrijwilligers: op 16 augustus vond leraar Robert Gebhardt in Saskatchewan RSM Behalve de enige tyrannosaurus door een huisdier opgespoord is het ook de enige uit Colorado ; de beenderen zijn door de bouwwerkzaamheden ernstig beschadigd.

In november van hetzelfde jaar vond amateurpaleontoloog Dean Pearson in Bowman County een fragmentarisch skelet dat wel geborgen is door het Pioneer Trails Regional Museum maar nooit is geprepareerd.

In trof commercieel verzamelaar Bill Gartska in Slope County , North Dakota , een fragmentarisch skelet aan dat hij in drie partijen aan evenzovele klanten verkocht.

De botten toonden sporen van kannibalisme. Ze verkochten informatie over de vindplaats, nabij de plaats waar het holotype vandaan kwam, aan de R.

Bij de botten van Tinker zou een tweede jong dier ingesloten zijn, Belle. Derflinger vond in zijn tweede specimen, BHI, bijgenaamd E.

Cope omdat dit naar verluidt het oorspronkelijke Massospondylus -skelet was, en rancher Alley ontdekte rex C.

In hetzelfde jaar werd in Wyoming Monty ontdekt, die nu in handen is van een fossielenhandel, het zogenaamde Babiarz Institute of Paleontological Studies.

Begin 21e eeuw nam het tempo van de vondsten eerst nog toe. Vondsten na zijn nog niet alle bekendgemaakt en hun vondstomstandigheden zijn vaak nog onduidelijk.

In groef een Nederlands team een exemplaar op in Montana om het in in Naturalis tentoon te stellen onder de naam Trix. Vroeger was het gebruikelijk te stellen dat resten van Tyrannosaurus zeldzaam waren en die bewering duikt nog wel op in populair-wetenschappelijke boeken.

De recente vondsten hebben de situatie echter fundamenteel gewijzigd. Bij Tyrannosaurus zijn de beenderen daarbij vaak niet helemaal versteend vervangen door andere stoffen zodat het oorspronkelijke botmateriaal nog aanwezig is.

Een speciaal exemplaar in dit verband is B-rex , MOR , waarvan zelfs het beenmerg bewaard is gebleven. Een analyse van de eiwitten toonde opnieuw aan dat vogels tot de Tyrannoraptora behoren, als relatief nauwe verwanten van de Tyrannosauroidea.

De ichnologie benoemt voor de sporen een eigen ichnospecies ; in benoemde Martin Lockley Tyrannosauripus pillmorei. Zelfs de nieuwe vondsten zijn niet voldoende om in de behoefte aan tyrannosaurusskeletten te voorzien en daarom is een veelvoud aan afgietsels gefabriceerd; meestal zal men in een natuurhistorisch museum een replica tegenkomen in plaats van een origineel.

Zo waren er van "Stan" in al 35 volledige skeletafgietsels gemaakt en vijftig schedels. Een groot probleem is dat de nieuwe vondsten meestal nog niet gedetailleerd beschreven zijn — een proces dat inclusief opgraving en preparatie steeds pas vele jaren na de ontdekking voltooid is; het gebruik als decoratie belemmert een langdurige studie en veel paleontologen beschrijven geen fossielen in particulier bezit omdat er geen vrije toegang gegarandeerd kan worden aan collegae die de resultaten zouden willen controleren.

Desalniettemin is Tyrannosaurus rex de laatste decennia intensief bestudeerd. Tientallen wetenschappelijke artikelen en verschillende symposia en boeken [24] zijn aan de aansprekende soort gewijd.

Door het grote aantal vondsten is het mogelijk geworden de soort statistisch te analyseren. Alle skeletten zijn gevonden in een vrij beperkt gebied, de oostkust van het toenmalige subcontinent Laramidia die grensde aan de zich toen ver naar het noorden uitstrekkende Golf van Mexico , onder de naam Western Interior Seaway.

De grote massa van de vondsten concentreert zich nog sterker. Meer dan de helft stamt uit een aaneengesloten zone die het noordoosten van Wyoming, het zuidoosten van Montana, het zuidwesten van North Dakota en het noordwesten van South Dakota omvat.

Daarnaast is er een tweede, nog sterkere, verdichting ten zuiden van Fort Peck in het midden van Montana. De meeste vondsten zijn daarbij in de allerbovenste lagen aangetroffen: voornamelijk de bovenste Hell Creek-formatie en de Lanceformatie.

Slechts een beperkt aantal stamt uit diepere, oudere lagen: de onderste Hell Creek. Wat fragmenten uit de Judith River-formatie , wellicht uit het late Campanien , meer dan 70 miljoen jaar oud, doen vermoeden dat toen een voorloper van Tyrannosaurus rex voorkwam, die wel met Tyrannosaurus sp.

Tyrannosaurus vormt hierin een uitzondering dat in de volksmond meestal de volledige soortnaam gebruikt wordt: Tyrannosaurus rex , soms correct afgekort tot T.

Dit gebruik wordt meestal verklaard vanuit de aansprekende naam. De suggestie van Oliver Perry Hay uit om met de soortaanduiding van Deinodon amplus een Tyrannosaurus amplus te vormen, [29] werd snel vergeten.

Toch is herhaalde malen gesteld dat Tarbosaurus onder Tyrannosaurus zou moeten vallen, omdat de twee genera weinig verschillen. Of daartoe werkelijk reden is, hangt af van de vraag of Tyrannosaurus en Tarbosaurus inderdaad zustertaxa vormen binnen de Tyrannosaurinae.

Het zou bijvoorbeeld ook kunnen dat een van de twee in feite nauwer verwant is aan de eerder voorkomende Daspletosaurus of Alioramus.

De meest recente exacte cladistische analyses hierover spreken elkaar op dit punt tegen. Nog eens twee soorten werden door Malejew in benoemd, binnen de geslachten Tarbosaurus en Gorgosaurus ; die zijn later door respectievelijk Anatoli Konstantinowitisj Rozjdestwenski en Donald Glut hernoemd tot Tyrannosaurus efremovi en Tyrannosaurus novojilovi.

In beide gevallen gaat het om exemplaren van Tarbosaurus bataar. Behalve Tarbosaurus bataar bestaat er ook nog een aantal andere recente soorten dat als Tyrannosaurus benoemd is.

In werd uit China een T. Dit is echter een onbeschreven naam, een nomen nudum , die daarbij vrijwel zeker geen echte soort van Tyrannosaurus aanduidt, want het fossiel, een enkele tand, stamt uit het vroege Krijt.

Paul dat ook Daspletosaurus bij Tyrannosaurus gerekend moest worden als een Tyrannosaurus torosus. In werd Tyrannosaurus zhuchengensis uit China gemeld, een middenvoetsbeen dat uit een te oude laag stamt om werkelijk van Tyrannosaurus te zijn.

Naast het toewijzen van soorten en geslachten die niet op het traditionele tyrannosaurusmateriaal gebaseerd zijn, komt het ook voor dat voorgesteld wordt dat materiaal zelf in meerdere soorten of zelfs geslachten op te splitsen.

Een enkele keer gebeurt dat op futiele gronden: in vernoemde Stephan Pickering Tyrannosaurus stanwinstonorum — in feite "Sue" — tegen betaling naar Stan Winston , een expert op het gebied van special effects , in het bijzonder animatronica.

Soms vindt men op grond van kleine verschillen dat het geslacht Dynamosaurus wel een jonger synoniem is maar de soort D. Al deze soorten worden algemeen als niet-valide beschouwd.

Meent men dus dat Tarbosaurus een eigen geslacht waard is, dan is Tyrannosaurus rex de enige benoemde soort binnen Tyrannosaurus.

Een nog niet benoemde soort of morfe is Tyrannosaurus "x", een door Robert Thomas Bakker in vermoede variant die zich zou kenmerken door het bezit van twee kleine tanden, in plaats van een, voor in de onderkaak en een kleiner pneumatisch foramen in het traanbeen.

Een groot strijdpunt is de laatste decennia het vraagstuk of bepaalde exemplaren jongen van Tyrannosaurus vertegenwoordigen of daarentegen aparte geslachten.

Eerst als een jong van Tyrannosaurus beschouwd, werd het door Ralph Molnar in beschreven als Albertosaurus lancensis , een alternatieve naam van Gorgosaurus lancensis.

In echter maakte Gregory S. Paul er een aparte soort van, Albertosaurus megagracilis en in George Olshevsky een apart geslacht: Dinotyrannus.

Een derde geval betreft LACM , een in opgegraven snuit. In werd dat door Paul benoemd tot Aublysodon molnaris , in door Olshevsky tot Stygivenator molnari.

Opnieuw gaat het om een juveniel exemplaar, van Tyrannosaurus of wellicht Nanotyrannus. Over de lichaamsbouw van Tyrannosaurus zijn door vroegere publicaties veel misverstanden ontstaan.

De eerste reconstructies voor het grotere publiek werden gegeven door William Diller Matthew in zijn The Dinosauria en door de schilder Charles Knight.

Latere illustratoren kopieerden hun werk en werden zelf weer als voorbeeld genomen. Door het herhaald natekenen, zonder veel begrip van de anatomie, ontstond een soort karikatuur van het dier.

De illustraties in populair-wetenschappelijke boeken gaven zo tot ver in de jaren zeventig een heel fout beeld van Tyrannosaurus.

Vaak wordt ook de snuit breed als bij een pad en de nek erg recht gereconstrueerd, ontspruitend uit een smalle, taps toelopende, borstkas.

In bleek uit onderzoek dat dit beeld bij de meeste mensen, jong of oud, nog steeds dominant is, ondanks dat populair-wetenschappelijke publicaties zich aan nieuwe inzichten hebben aangepast.

Dit werd verklaard uit de invloed van speelgoed en stripverhalen die een grotere culturele traagheid zouden hebben.

In werkelijkheid heeft Tyrannosaurus de algemene bouw van de theropoden: hij loopt wel op de achterpoten, maar de rug wordt horizontaal gehouden waarbij de lange horizontale staart het lichaam in evenwicht brengt.

De nek heeft een S-vorm die nog versterkt wordt door de dikke bovenste nekspieren. De schedel is langwerpig. De borstkas is breed. Tyrannosaurus bezit echter ook eigenschappen waarin hij van de meeste theropoden afwijkt.

Zijn skelet is erg zwaargebouwd, meer nog dan nodig zou zijn om zijn grote gewicht te dragen.

Hij is ook gedrongen van postuur: nek, romp en staart zijn voor een theropode tamelijk kort en relatief breed en hoog.

De voorpoten zijn zeer kort maar de achterpoten juist lang. Tyrannosaurus was een reusachtig dier : de meest complete skeletten hebben een heuphoogte van rond de 3,50 meter.

De kop stak nog eens een halve meter boven de horizontaal gehouden rug uit. De precieze lengte was lang onbekend door het ontbreken van de achterste staartwervels, schattingen voor de skeletten door Brown opgegraven liepen uiteen van elf tot veertien meter.

De hoge schatting kwam voort door een extrapolatie vanuit de verhoudingen bij Allosaurus , die een relatief langere staart heeft. Tegenwoordig weten we — hoewel het uiterste puntje van de staart nog steeds onbekend is — dat de lagere schattingen de waarheid dichter benaderden: CMN , het holotype, had bij leven een lengte van ongeveer 12,4 meter en een gewicht van 4,7 ton.

Hun gewicht lag rond de 5,6 ton. Extrapolatie vanuit fragmenten is bij Tyrannosaurus echter geen erg betrouwbare schattingsmethode doordat het dier in zijn proporties nogal variabel was.

Dit leidde bijvoorbeeld bij MOR tot de oorspronkelijke schatting van 21 meter; dit individu had een afwijkend breed bekken. In publiceerden Hutchinson e.

Het individu was niet bijzonder lang maar wel volgroeid en erg robuust. Er was al een vorm ontdekt die hem in grootte benaderde, Epanterias , maar daarvan zou pas later duidelijk worden dat het een theropode betrof.

Andere al bekende soorten, zoals Allosaurus fragilis en Megalosaurus , wogen maar een derde van Tyrannosaurus. Lange tijd leek de positie van Tyrannosaurus onbedreigd en het kwam voor velen als een verrassing en zelfs een schok toen in een nieuwe soort beschreven werd, Giganotosaurus , die nog groter was.

Deze ontdekking leek een trend te zetten: ook van andere in die tijd opduikende theropoden werd graag beweerd dat ze kandidaten waren voor de titel.

Ook Carcharodontosaurus en Tyrannotitan lukte het niet Giganotosaurus weer van de troon te stoten. Maar eigenlijk was de strijd al tachtig jaar eerder beslecht.

Kort na de beschrijving van Tyrannosaurus was er in namelijk al een nog langere theropode ontdekt: Spinosaurus , met een lengte van zo'n vijftien meter.

Dit feit was niet onopgemerkt gebleven, maar werd genegeerd met als excuus dat Spinosaurus vanwege zijn meer langgerekte bouw ook wel lichter geweest zou zijn dan Tyrannosaurus — exacte berekeningen voerde men niet uit.

De kop van Tyrannosaurus telt 55 beenderen: 41 in de schedel en veertien in de onderkaken. Alleen de krachtlijnen zijn versterkt.

Bij Tyrannosaurus zijn de schedel en vooral de onderkaken — twee, links en rechts, per schedel — echter wel uitzonderlijk robuust.

De schedelopeningen zijn voor een theropode relatief klein en verschillende botten, zoals beide neusbeenderen, zijn vergroeid; [52] de luchtholten in de afzonderlijke beenderen zijn echter erg uitgebreid.

De schedel van Sue is millimeter lang. De langste enigszins complete schedel is MOR met een lengte van ongeveer centimeter.

Het getal van centimeter dat vaak in de populair-wetenschappelijke literatuur opduikt, berust op een oude te hoge schatting voor UCMP de schedel waartoe dit fragment behoort, zal in feite een lengte gehad hebben van tot centimeter.

De hele schedel is aangepast om de bijtkracht te vergroten. Theropoden uit andere groepen hadden vrij kleine tanden waarmee ze hun prooi oppervlakkig konden verwonden en door herhaalde aanvallen uitputten om hem langzaam te laten bezwijken onder bloedverlies.

Tyrannosaurus en de overige Tyrannosauridae echter specialiseerden zich in het toebrengen van een beslissende diepere beet.

Dit vergde echter veel meer spierkracht en de schedel moest daarom groter worden om de benodigde spiermassa een plaats te geven en steviger om niet zelf door de reactiekracht ontwricht te worden.

De spieren die de kaken sloten, bevonden zich aan de achterkant van de kop. De schedel van Tyrannosaurus is overeenkomstig achteraan uitzonderlijk breed voor een theropode: de breedte bedraagt twee derden van de lengte; zelfs bij andere tyrannosauriden is dat hoogstens de helft.

De aan de buitenkant lopende kaakspieren konden dus zeer dik worden. De belangrijkste sluitspieren zaten echter aan de onderkant van de schedel vast.

Die hadden vergrote aanhechtingspunten doordat achteraan de onderkaak het holle os surangulare , waarin een van het verhemelte komende spier uitmondde en daaronder het os angulare , waar een andere aan de binnenkant lopende spier van onderen omheengewikkeld was, extreem breed en hoog waren.

De eigenlijke beet kon ondersteund worden door een rukkende beweging van de kop: de S-vormige nek is bijzonder robuust en droeg bovenop krachtige uitpuilende nekspieren die met een ruwe hoge dwarskam aan het achterhoofd verbonden waren.

De zware bouw van de schedel leidde tot een verminderde onderlinge beweeglijkheid, kinesis, van de schedeldelen, wat het geheel nog eens extra stevig maakte.

Een studie toonde aan dat de schedel in het verhemelte speciaal verstard was om grote bijtkrachten mogelijk te maken, tot over de twee ton.

Een diepe beet vergde ook lange tanden. Tyrannosaurus bezit in verhouding tot zijn schedel bijzonder grote tanden, de langste van alle bekende theropoden.

De grootste in de bovenkaken zijn ongeveer dertig centimeter lang, waarvan achttien centimeter als kroon boven het tandvlees uitstak.

Een bijzonder kenmerk van de tyrannosauriden om de effectiviteit van de beet te vergroten is de vorm van de in totaal acht wat kleinere tanden in de voorste bovenkaakbeenderen, de praemaxillae: D-vormig in doorsnede in plaats van erg plat.

Dit had als gevolg dat Tyrannosaurus , in tegenstelling tot de meeste andere theropoden, botten kon doorbijten en zelfs vergruizelen.

Hierdoor kon in een keer een grote vleesmassa uit de wond gerukt worden.

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