Ostindien company

Ostindien Company Inhaltsverzeichnis

Die Britische Ostindien-Kompanie (British East India Company, BEIC), bis English East India Company (EIC), war eine Ostindien-Kompanie, die durch. Die Britische Ostindien-Kompanie, bis English East India Company, war eine Ostindien-Kompanie, die durch einen Freibrief entstand, den Königin Elisabeth I. einer Gruppe von reichen Londoner Kaufleuten am Dezember ausstellte. Ostindien-Kompanie. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Die Ostindischen Kompanien waren in mehreren. Die britische Handelsgesellschaft der Ostindien-Kompanie annektierte einen ganzen Subkontinent. Ihr Vermächtnis ist noch heute zu spüren. von 31 Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für Bücher: "Ostindien-Kompanie". Überspringen und zu Haupt-Suchergebnisse gehen. Amazon Prime. Kostenlose​.

ostindien company

Die Britische Ostindien-Kompanie, bis English East India Company, war eine Ostindien-Kompanie, die durch einen Freibrief entstand, den Königin Elisabeth I. einer Gruppe von reichen Londoner Kaufleuten am Dezember ausstellte. Der englische Seefahrer im Dienst der niederländischen Ostindien-Kompanie hätte Niederländer die britische Ostindien-Kompanie (East India Company) dar​. Holländisch-Ostindischen Kompanie: Niederländ. Company, bis English East India Company) wird am als Ostindien-Kompanie v. der engl.

The company's envoys had to prostrate themselves before the emperor, pay a large indemnity, and promise better behaviour in the future.

The emperor withdrew his troops, and the company subsequently re-established itself in Bombay and set up a new base in Calcutta.

Eventually, the East India Company seized control of Bengal and slowly the whole Indian subcontinent with its private armies, composed primarily of Indian sepoys.

As historian William Dalrymple observes,. We still talk about the British conquering India, but that phrase disguises a more sinister reality.

It was not the British government that seized India at the end of the 18th century, but a dangerously unregulated private company headquartered in one small office, five windows wide, in London, and managed in India by an unstable sociopath — [Robert] Clive.

The commencement date of the British East India Company's involvement from their own archives suggests , when a Captain Robert Knox was tasked with purchasing slaves from Madagascar to be transported to St.

Helena [49]. However according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the date is set in the early s where it suggests the company commenced transporting and using slave labor to its facilities across Asia and the Atlantic [50].

Allen suggests that the commencement date was in [51]. According to the paper by Bonnie Pinkston, the East India company continued to use slaves across their territories until abolition.

The East India Company did pass an Act in ending the transportation of new slaves into its territories. Professor Richard B.

Allen, has published articles and books on the subject of Slavery, such as the book titled European Slave Trading in the Indian Ocean - Which also includes sources on the British East Indian Companies involvement along with other European nations activities [51].

In , people were transported to Bombay to meet a shortfall in local labour. The East India Company were facing financial difficulties, so an order from the directors was given to purchase and transport these slaves [54].

In , during the rule of Tokugawa Hidetada of the Tokugawa shogunate , the British ship Clove , under the command of Captain John Saris , was the first British ship to call on Japan.

Saris was the chief factor of the EIC's trading post in Java , and with the assistance of William Adams , a British sailor who had arrived in Japan in , he was able to gain permission from the ruler to establish a commercial house in Hirado on the Japanese island of Kyushu :.

We give free license to the subjects of the King of Great Britaine, Sir Thomas Smythe, Governor and Company of the East Indian Merchants and Adventurers forever safely come into any of our ports of our Empire of Japan with their shippes and merchandise, without any hindrance to them or their goods, and to abide, buy, sell and barter according to their own manner with all nations, to tarry here as long as they think good, and to depart at their pleasure.

However, unable to obtain Japanese raw silk for import to China and with their trading area reduced to Hirado and Nagasaki from onwards, the company closed its factory in In September , Captain Henry Every , an English pirate on board the Fancy , reached the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb , where he teamed up with five other pirate captains to make an attack on the Indian fleet on return from the annual pilgrimage to Mecca.

The Mughal convoy included the treasure-laden Ganj-i-Sawai , reported to be the greatest in the Mughal fleet and the largest ship operational in the Indian Ocean, and its escort, the Fateh Muhammed.

They were spotted passing the straits en route to Surat. Every continued in pursuit and managed to overhaul Ganj-i-Sawai , which resisted strongly before eventually striking.

Ganj-i-Sawai carried enormous wealth and, according to contemporary East India Company sources, was carrying a relative of the Grand Mughal, though there is no evidence to suggest that it was his daughter and her retinue.

When the news arrived in England it caused an outcry. To appease Aurangzeb, the East India Company promised to pay all financial reparations, while Parliament declared the pirates hostis humani generis "enemies of the human race".

When the East India Company later doubled that reward, the first worldwide manhunt in recorded history was underway.

The plunder of Aurangzeb's treasure ship had serious consequences for the English East India Company. The furious Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb ordered Sidi Yaqub and Nawab Daud Khan to attack and close four of the company's factories in India and imprison their officers, who were almost lynched by a mob of angry Mughals , blaming them for their countryman's depredations, and threatened to put an end to all English trading in India.

To appease Emperor Aurangzeb and particularly his Grand Vizier Asad Khan, Parliament exempted Every from all of the Acts of Grace pardons and amnesties it would subsequently issue to other pirates.

English, Dutch and Danish factories at Mocha. An 18th-century depiction of Henry Every , with the Fancy shown engaging its prey in the background.

British pirates that fought during the Child's War engaging the Ganj-i-Sawai. The prosperity that the officers of the company enjoyed allowed them to return to Britain and establish sprawling estates and businesses, and to obtain political power.

The company developed a lobby in the English parliament. Under pressure from ambitious tradesmen and former associates of the company pejoratively termed Interlopers by the company , who wanted to establish private trading firms in India, a deregulating act was passed in This allowed any English firm to trade with India, unless specifically prohibited by act of parliament, thereby annulling the charter that had been in force for almost years.

The two companies wrestled with each other for some time, both in England and in India, for a dominant share of the trade.

It quickly became evident that, in practice, the original company faced scarcely any measurable competition.

The companies merged in , by a tripartite indenture involving both companies and the state, with the charter and agreement for the new United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies being awarded by the Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin.

In the following decades there was a constant battle between the company lobby and the Parliament. The company sought a permanent establishment, while the Parliament would not willingly allow it greater autonomy and so relinquish the opportunity to exploit the company's profits.

In , another act renewed the status of the company, though the debts were repaid. The licence was prolonged until by yet another act in At this time, Britain and France became bitter rivals.

Frequent skirmishes between them took place for control of colonial possessions. Between and , the Seven Years' War diverted the state's attention towards consolidation and defence of its territorial possessions in Europe and its colonies in North America.

The war took place on Indian soil, between the company troops and the French forces. In , the Law Officers of the Crown delivered the Pratt—Yorke opinion distinguishing overseas territories acquired by right of conquest from those acquired by private treaty.

The opinion asserted that, while the Crown of Great Britain enjoyed sovereignty over both, only the property of the former was vested in the Crown.

With the advent of the Industrial Revolution , Britain surged ahead of its European rivals. Demand for Indian commodities was boosted by the need to sustain the troops and the economy during the war, and by the increased availability of raw materials and efficient methods of production.

As home to the revolution, Britain experienced higher standards of living. Its spiralling cycle of prosperity, demand and production had a profound influence on overseas trade.

The company became the single largest player in the British global market. In Henry Dundas reported to the House of Commons that. Sir John Banks , a businessman from Kent who negotiated an agreement between the king and the company, began his career in a syndicate arranging contracts for victualling the navy , an interest he kept up for most of his life.

Outstanding debts were also agreed and the company permitted to export tons of saltpetre. So high was the demand from armed forces that the authorities sometimes turned a blind eye on the untaxed sales.

One governor of the company was even reported as saying in that he would rather have the saltpetre made than the tax on salt.

The Seven Years' War — resulted in the defeat of the French forces, limited French imperial ambitions, and stunted the influence of the Industrial Revolution in French territories.

The company took this respite to seize Manila in Although these small outposts remained French possessions for the next two hundred years, French ambitions on Indian territories were effectively laid to rest, thus eliminating a major source of economic competition for the company.

The East India Company had also been granted competitive advantages over colonial American tea importers to sell tea from its colonies in Asia in American colonies.

This led to the Boston Tea Party in which protesters boarded British ships and threw the tea overboard. When protesters successfully prevented the unloading of tea in three other colonies and in Boston, Governor Thomas Hutchinson of the Province of Massachusetts Bay refused to allow the tea to be returned to Britain.

This was one of the incidents which led to the American revolution and independence of the American colonies. In its first century and half, the EIC used a few hundred soldiers as guards.

The great expansion came after , when it had 3, regular troops. By , it had 26,; by , it had 67, It recruited largely Indian troops and trained them along European lines.

Because of this, the EIC became the most powerful military force in the Indian subcontinent. As it increased in size, the army was divided into the Presidency Armies of Bengal , Madras and Bombay , each of which recruited its own infantry , cavalry , and artillery units.

The navy also grew significantly, vastly expanding its fleet. Although heavily armed merchant vessels, called East Indiamen, composed most of the fleet, it also included warships.

The company, fresh from a colossal victory, and with the backing of its own private, well-disciplined, and experienced army, was able to assert its interests in the Carnatic region from its base at Madras and in Bengal from Calcutta, without facing any further obstacles from other colonial powers.

It continued to experience resistance from local rulers during its expansion. Robert Clive led company forces against Siraj Ud Daulah , the last independent Nawab of Bengal, Bihar , and Midnapore district in Odisha to victory at the Battle of Plassey in , resulting in the conquest of Bengal.

That led to the Battle of Buxar. Having sided with the French during the Revolutionary War, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars.

Mysore finally fell to the company forces in , in the fourth Anglo-Mysore war during which Tipu Sultan was killed. The last vestiges of local administration were restricted to the northern regions of Delhi, Oudh , Rajputana , and Punjab , where the company's presence was ever increasing amidst infighting and offers of protection among the remaining princes.

The hundred years from the Battle of Plassey in to the Indian Rebellion of were a period of consolidation for the company, during which it seized control of the entire Indian subcontinent and functioned more as an administrator and less as a trading concern.

A cholera pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by In the early 19th century the Indian question of geopolitical dominance and empire holding remained with the East India Company.

Within the Army British officers, who initially trained at the company's own academy at the Addiscombe Military Seminary , always outranked Indians, no matter how long the Indians' service.

The highest rank to which an Indian soldier could aspire was Subadar-Major or Risaldar-Major in cavalry units , effectively a senior subaltern equivalent.

Promotion for both British and Indian soldiers was strictly by seniority, so Indian soldiers rarely reached the commissioned ranks of Jamadar or Subadar before they were middle aged at best.

They received no training in administration or leadership to make them independent of their British officers. They were taken by the British in a hard fought campaign by and the French threat defeated.

In the middle of the Colonial Governor of India, the 1st Earl of Minto wanted to conquer the lucrative Dutch owned Spice islands famous for nutmeg, mace and cloves.

For the EIC the occupation of these islands meant not only a curtailment of Dutch and French trade and power in the East Indies but also an equivalent gain to the company of the rich trade in spice.

In the islands including Banda Neira , Ambon and Ternate fell to a British invasion with little loss.

The British held on to the islands until the end of the war - the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of meant that they were handed back to the Dutch.

The EIC nevertheless had uprooted a lot of the spice trees for transplantation throughout the British Empire.

By the s the EIC had established a number of spice gardens in Penang ; by the gardens had significantly expanded to 13, nutmeg trees and as many as 20, clove trees.

There was a systemic disrespect in the company for the spreading of Protestantism , although it fostered respect for Hindu and Muslim , castes , and ethnic groups.

The growth of tensions between the EIC and the local religious and cultural groups grew in the 19th century as the Protestant revival grew in Great Britain.

These tensions erupted at the Indian Rebellion of and the company ceased to exist when the company dissolved through the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act In the 18th century, Britain had a huge trade deficit with China.

Therefore, in , the company created a British monopoly on opium buying in Bengal , India, by prohibiting the licensing of opium farmers and private cultivation.

The monopoly system established in continued with minimal changes until So the opium produced in Bengal was sold in Calcutta on condition that it be sent to China.

The proceeds of the drug-smugglers landing their cargoes at Lintin Island were paid into the company's factory at Canton and by , most of the money needed to buy tea in China was raised by the illegal opium trade.

The company established a group of trading settlements centred on the Straits of Malacca called the Straits Settlements in to protect its trade route to China and to combat local piracy.

The settlements were also used as penal settlements for Indian civilian and military prisoners. In with the amount of smuggled opium entering China approaching 1, tons a year, the Chinese imposed a death penalty for opium smuggling and sent a Special Imperial Commissioner, Lin Zexu , to curb smuggling.

This resulted in the First Opium War — After the war Hong Kong island was ceded to Britain under the Treaty of Nanking and the Chinese market opened to the opium traders of Britain and other nations.

Legalisation stimulated domestic Chinese opium production and increased the importation of opium from Turkey and Persia. This increased competition for the Chinese market led to India's reducing its opium output and diversifying its exports.

The British government issues a series of regulations over the years. The company employed many junior clerks, known as "writers", to record the details of accounting, managerial decisions, and activities related to the company, such as minutes of meetings, copies of Company orders and contracts, and filings of reports and copies of ship's logs.

The company kept good financial statistics. Although the company was becoming increasingly bold and ambitious in putting down resisting states, it was becoming clearer that the company was incapable of governing the vast expanse of the captured territories.

The Bengal famine of , in which one-third of the local population died, caused distress in Britain. Military and administrative costs mounted beyond control in British-administered regions in Bengal because of the ensuing drop in labour productivity.

At the same time, there was commercial stagnation and trade depression throughout Europe. The directors of the company attempted to avert bankruptcy by appealing to Parliament for financial help.

This led to the passing of the Tea Act in , which gave the company greater autonomy in running its trade in the American colonies, and allowed it an exemption from tea import duties which its colonial competitors were required to pay.

When the American colonists and tea merchants were told of this Act, they boycotted the company tea. Although the price of tea had dropped because of the Act, it also validated the Townshend Acts , setting the precedent for the king to impose additional taxes in the future.

The arrival of tax-exempt Company tea, undercutting the local merchants, triggered the Boston Tea Party in the Province of Massachusetts Bay , one of the major events leading up to the American Revolution.

By the Regulating Act of later known as the East India Company Act , the Parliament of Great Britain imposed a series of administrative and economic reforms; this clearly established Parliament's sovereignty and ultimate control over the company.

The Act recognised the company's political functions and clearly established that the " acquisition of sovereignty by the subjects of the Crown is on behalf of the Crown and not in its own right".

Despite stiff resistance from the East India lobby in Parliament and from the company's shareholders, the Act passed.

Under the Act's most important provision, a governing Council composed of five members was created in Calcutta.

The three members nominated by Parliament and representing the government's interest could, and invariably would, outvote the two Company members.

The Council was headed by Warren Hastings , the incumbent governor, who became the first governor-general of Bengal , with an ill-defined authority over the Bombay and Madras Presidencies.

Hastings was entrusted with the power of war and peace. British judges and magistrates would also be sent to India to administer the legal system.

The governor-general and the council would have complete legislative powers. The company was allowed to maintain its virtual monopoly over trade in exchange for the biennial sum and was obligated to export a minimum quantity of goods yearly to Britain.

The costs of administration were to be met by the company. The company initially welcomed these provisions, but the annual burden of the payment contributed to the steady decline of its finances.

Pitt's Act was deemed a failure because it quickly became apparent that the boundaries between government control and the company's powers were nebulous and highly subjective.

The government felt obliged to respond to humanitarian calls for better treatment of local peoples in British-occupied territories.

Edmund Burke , a former East India Company shareholder and diplomat, was moved to address the situation and introduced a new Regulating Bill in The bill was defeated amid lobbying by company loyalists and accusations of nepotism in the bill's recommendations for the appointment of councillors.

The Act of 26 Geo. The Act enabled the offices of the governor-general and the commander-in-chief to be jointly held by the same official.

This Act clearly demarcated borders between the Crown and the company. After this point, the company functioned as a regularised subsidiary of the Crown, with greater accountability for its actions and reached a stable stage of expansion and consolidation.

Having temporarily achieved a state of truce with the Crown, the company continued to expand its influence to nearby territories through threats and coercive actions.

By the middle of the 19th century, the company's rule extended across most of India, Burma , Malaya , Singapore , and Hong Kong , and a fifth of the world's population was under its trading influence.

In addition, Penang Island , ceded from the Kedah Sultanate in Malaya, became the fourth most important settlement, a presidency, of the company's Indian territories.

In contrast with the legislative proposals of the previous two decades, the Act was not a particularly controversial measure, and made only minimal changes to the system of government in India and to British oversight of the company's activities.

Sale of liquor was forbidden without licence. It was pointed that the payment of the staff of the board of council should not be made from the Indian revenue.

The aggressive policies of Lord Wellesley and the Marquess of Hastings led to the company's gaining control of all India except for the Punjab and Sindh , and some part of the then kingdom of Nepal under the Sugauli Treaty.

The Indian princes had become vassals of the company. But the expense of wars leading to the total control of India strained the company's finances.

The company was forced to petition Parliament for assistance. This was the background to the Charter Act of which, among other things: [92].

The Act:. British influence continued to expand; in , Great Britain purchased the Danish colony of Tranquebar.

The company had at various stages extended its influence to China, the Philippines, and Java. It had solved its critical lack of cash needed to buy tea by exporting Indian-grown opium to China.

China's efforts to end the trade led to the First Opium War — It also introduced a system of open competition as the basis of recruitment for civil servants of the company and thus deprived the directors of their patronage system.

Under the act, for the first time the legislative and executive powers of the governor-general's council were separated.

It also added six additional members to the governor-general's executive committee. The Indian Rebellion of also known as the Indian Mutiny or Sepoy Mutiny resulted in widespread devastation in India: many condemned the East India Company for permitting the events to occur.

The Crown took over its Indian possessions, its administrative powers and machinery, and its armed forces.

The company remained in existence in vestigial form, continuing to manage the tea trade on behalf of the British Government and the supply of Saint Helena until the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act came into effect, on 1 January This Act provided for the formal dissolution of the company on 1 June , after a final dividend payment and the commutation or redemption of its stock.

It accomplished a work such as in the whole history of the human race no other trading Company ever attempted, and such as none, surely, is likely to attempt in the years to come.

After occupying premises in Philpot Lane from to ; in Crosby House , Bishopsgate , from to ; and in Leadenhall Street from to , the company moved into Craven House, an Elizabethan mansion in Leadenhall Street.

The building had become known as East India House by It was completely rebuilt and enlarged in —; and further significantly remodelled and expanded in — It was finally vacated in and demolished in — The site is now occupied by the Lloyd's building.

In , the company decided to build its own ships and leased a yard on the River Thames at Deptford. By , the yard having become too small, an alternative site was acquired at Blackwall : the new yard was fully operational by It was sold in , although for some years East India Company ships continued to be built and repaired there under the new owners.

The docks were taken over by the Port of London Authority in , and closed in The East India College was founded in as a training establishment for "writers" i.

It was initially located in Hertford Castle , but moved in to purpose-built premises at Hertford Heath , Hertfordshire.

In the college closed; but in the buildings reopened as a public school , now Haileybury and Imperial Service College.

The East India Company Military Seminary was founded in at Addiscombe , near Croydon , Surrey, to train young officers for service in the company's armies in India.

It was based in Addiscombe Place, an early 18th-century mansion. The government took it over in , and renamed it the Royal Indian Military College.

In it was closed, and the site was subsequently redeveloped. In , the company entered into an agreement by which those of its servants who were certified insane in India might be cared for at Pembroke House, Hackney , London, a private lunatic asylum run by Dr George Rees until , and thereafter by Dr William Williams.

The arrangement outlasted the company itself, continuing until , when the India Office opened its own asylum, the Royal India Asylum , at Hanwell , Middlesex.

The East India Club in London was formed in for officers of the company. The Club still exists today as a private gentlemen's club with its club house situated at 16 St.

James's Square , London. The East India Company was one of the most powerful and enduring organisations in history and had a long lasting impact on the Indian Subcontinent, with both positive and harmful effects.

Although dissolved by the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act following the rebellion of , it stimulated the growth of the British Empire.

Its professionally trained armies rose to dominate the sub-continent and were to become the armies of British India after It played a key role in introducing English as an official language in India.

This also led to Macaulayism in the Indian subcontinent. Once the East India Company took over Bengal in the treaty of Allahabad it collected taxes which it used to further its expansion to the rest of India and did not have to rely on venture capital from London.

It returned a high profit to those who risked original money for earlier ventures into Bengal. During the first century of the East India Company's expansion in India, most people in India lived under regional kings or Nawabs.

By the late 18th century many Moghuls were weak in comparison to the rapidly expanding Company as it took over cities and land, built railways, roads and bridges.

The first railway of 21 mile The Company sought quick profits because the financial backers in England took high risks: their money for possible profits or losses through shipwrecks, wars or calamities.

The increasingly large territory the Company was annexing and collecting taxes was also run by the local Nawabs. In essence, it was a dual administration.

Between and Robert Clive gave the responsibility of tax collecting, diwani , to the Indian deputy and judicial and police responsibilities to other Indian deputies.

The Company concentrated its new power of collecting revenue and left the responsibilities to the Indian agencies.

The East India Company took the beginning steps of British takeover of power in India for centuries to come. In , the Company made Warren Hastings , who had been in India with the Company since , its first governor-general to manage and overview all of the annexed lands.

The dual administration system came to an end. Hastings learned Urdu and Persian and took great interest in preserving ancient Sanskrit manuscripts and having them translated into English.

He employed many Indians as officials. Hastings used Sanskrit texts for Hindus and Arabic texts for Muslims. This is still used in Pakistani and Bangladeshi courts today in civil law.

Hastings also annexed lands and kingdoms and enriched himself in the process. His enemies in London used this against him to have him impeached.

See Impeachment of Warren Hastings. Charles Cornwallis , widely remembered as having surrendered to George Washington following the Siege of Yorktown in , replaced Hastings.

Cornwallis distrusted Indians and replaced Indians with Englishmen. He introduced a system of personal land ownership for Indians. This change caused much conflict since most illiterate people had no idea why they suddenly became land renters from land owners.

The Mughals, Marathas and other local rulers often had to choose to fight against the Company and lose everything or cooperate with the Company and receive a big pension but lose their Empires or Kingdoms.

The British East India Company gradually took over most of India by threat, intimidation, bribery or outright war. The East India Company was the first company to record the Chinese usage of orange-flavoured tea, which led to the development of Earl Grey tea.

The East India Company introduced a system of merit-based appointments that provided a model for the British and Indian civil service.

Widespread corruption and looting of Bengal resources and treasures during its rule resulted in poverty. A proportion of the loot of Bengal went directly into Clive's pocket.

Critics have argued the company damaged the Indian economy through exploitive economic policies and looting.

National Geographic There has been much debate about the number and order of stripes in the field of the flag. The East India Company's original coat of arms was granted in The blazon of the arms is as follows:.

The supporters were two sea lions lions with fishes' tails and the motto was Deo ducente nil nocet Latin: Where God Leads, Nothing Harms.

The East India Company's later arms, granted in , were: "Argent a cross Gules; in the dexter chief quarter an escutcheon of the arms of France and England quarterly, the shield ornamentally and regally crowned Or.

When the East India Company was chartered in , it was still customary for individual merchants or members of companies such as the Company of Merchant Adventurers to have a distinguishing merchant's mark which often included the mystical "Sign of Four" and served as a trademark.

The East India Company's merchant mark consisted of a "Sign of Four" atop a heart within which was a saltire between the lower arms of which were the initials "EIC".

This mark was a central motif of the East India Company's coinage [] and forms the central emblem displayed on the Scinde Dawk postage stamps.

This was not so that they could carry cannon to fend off warships, privateers, and pirates on their voyages to India and China that they could do without permission but so that, should they have the opportunity to take a prize, they could do so without being guilty of piracy.

Similarly, the Earl of Mornington , an East India Company packet ship of only six guns, also sailed under a letter of marque.

In addition, the company had its own navy, the Bombay Marine , equipped with warships such as Grappler. These vessels often accompanied vessels of the Royal Navy on expeditions, such as the Invasion of Java.

At the Battle of Pulo Aura , which was probably the company's most notable naval victory, Nathaniel Dance , Commodore of a convoy of Indiamen and sailing aboard the Warley , led several Indiamen in a skirmish with a French squadron, driving them off.

On this occasion the Indiamen also succeeded in bluffing their way to safety, and without any shots even being fired. East Indiamen were large and strongly built and when the Royal Navy was desperate for vessels to escort merchant convoys it bought several of them to convert to warships.

Other examples include:. Their design as merchant vessels meant that their performance in the warship role was underwhelming and the Navy converted them to transports.

The catalogue is searchable online in the Access to Archives catalogues. Published catalogues exist of East India Company ships' journals and logs, —; [] and of some of the company's daughter institutions, including the East India Company College, Haileybury, and Addiscombe Military Seminary.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the 16th—19th-century English and British trading company. For other uses, see East India Company disambiguation.

Company flag Former type. Great Britain. Portuguese India — In Handelsangelegenheiten behielt die Kompanie ihre alte Selbstständigkeit, doch wurde die Anstellung der höheren Beamten, Richter und Heerführer unter staatliche Aufsicht gestellt.

Zunehmende Aufstände, zuletzt derjenige der Sipahi , führten dazu, dass man die Rechte der Kompanie an die britische Krone übertrug. August ein weiteres Gesetz.

Die letzte Sitzung der Direktoren fand am August statt. Dadurch erhielt sie einen bedeutenden Vorteil gegenüber ihren Konkurrenten.

Ein entscheidender Sieg durch Sir Robert Clive, 1. Bis zum Jahr konnten die Franzosen weitgehend aus Indien vertrieben werden.

Nur an der Küste verblieben einige französische Handelsniederlassungen, so auch Pondicherry. Schon versuchte die Kompanie, die Gegend um den Tafelberg im heutigen Südafrika zu beanspruchen.

Später besetzte und beherrschte sie St. Ebenso wurden Niederlassungen in Hongkong und Singapur etabliert. Die Kompanie engagierte William Kidd , um gegen die Piraterie vorzugehen.

Ebenfalls erweiterte sie die Teeproduktion in Indien. Jahrhundert, Stars and Stripes wurde geschaffen. Die Werften der Ostindien-Kompanie dienten als Vorbild für diejenigen in Sankt Petersburg , Teile ihrer Verwaltung sind in der indischen Bürokratie erhalten geblieben und ihre Gesellschaftsstruktur war das erfolgreichste Modell einer Aktiengesellschaft.

Die Gesellschaft wurde als The Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies von einer Gruppe unternehmungslustiger und einflussreicher Geschäftsmänner gegründet, die einen königlichen Freibrief mit einem exklusiven Recht Monopol des Indienhandels für eine Dauer von 15 Jahren erhielt.

Die Kompanie hatte Anteilseigner und ein Grundkapital von Anfänglich konnte sie jedoch die niederländische Kontrolle über den Gewürzhandel kaum erschüttern.

Auch gelang es ihr zunächst nicht, einen dauerhaften Stützpunkt in Indien zu errichten. Dort wurde dann auch ein Handelsstützpunkt errichtet.

In den folgenden zwei Jahren konnte sie ihr erstes Handelskontor in Machilipatnam an der Koromandelküste in der Bucht von Bengalen aufbauen.

Verhandlungen mit der Niederländischen Ostindien-Kompanie über einen Zusammenschluss beider Gesellschaften scheiterten Vielleicht sah man die Nutzlosigkeit von Handelskriegen in fernen Gewässern ein, jedenfalls entschlossen sich die Briten, Möglichkeiten einer dauerhaften Niederlassung auf dem indischen Festland zu erkunden.

Man veranlasste die britische Regierung, eine diplomatische Initiative zu beginnen. Zur Bestätigung unserer Liebe und Freundschaft wünsche ich mir von Ihrer Majestät, ihren Händlern zu befehlen, auf ihren Schiffen alle Arten von Luxusgütern und prächtige Waren zu transportieren, die meines Palastes würdig sind; und dass Sie mir Ihre königlichen Briefe bei jeder Gelegenheit senden, so dass ich mich Ihrer Gesundheit und erfolgreichen Angelegenheiten erfreuen kann; dass unsere Freundschaft gegenseitig und ewig währte.

Mit derartiger Unterstützung gelang es der Kompanie bald, die Portugiesen zu übertreffen, die Niederlassungen in Goa und Bombay gegründet hatten.

George in Madras und Bombay Castle. Im Jahr erweiterte der Mogulkaiser seine Gastfreundschaft für die englischen Händler in der Region Bengalen und im Jahr befreite einer seiner Nachfolger sie vollständig von den Zöllen für Waren.

Die Kompanie, von Handelskonkurrenten, anderen imperialen Mächten und zeitweilig feindlich gesinnten einheimischen Herrschern umgeben, hatte einen wachsenden Bedarf an militärischem Schutz.

Deshalb war die Freiheit, ihre militärischen Angelegenheiten selbst zu regeln, ein willkommenes Geschenk, und die Kompanie stellte ab rasch ihre eigenen Streitkräfte auf, die sie hauptsächlich aus der einheimischen Bevölkerung rekrutierte.

Somit kann man darüber diskutieren, ob die Kompanie ab auf dem indischen Festland einen Staat darstellte, da sie weitgehend souverän war.

Sie verwaltete die riesigen Gebiete von Bengalen, Madras und Bombay und verfügte über eine erhebliche militärische Schlagkraft. Da die Angestellten der Kompanie zum Teil reich waren, konnten sie in ihre Heimat zurückkehren.

So standen ihnen dann die Türen zur Macht offen. Daraus folgend entwickelte die Kompanie ihre eigene Lobby im Parlament.

Trotz allem geriet sie unter Druck ehrgeiziger Geschäftsleute und früherer Partner der Kompanie abschätzig von der Kompanie Gesprächspartner genannt , die ebenfalls private Handelsfirmen in Indien etablieren wollten.

Dies führte zur Verabschiedung eines Deregulierungsgesetzes Dieses Gesetz erlaubte es jeder englischen Firma, mit Indien zu handeln, sofern es nicht ausdrücklich durch ein Parlamentsgesetz verboten war.

Hierdurch wurde der Freibrief aufgehoben, der beinahe Jahre in Kraft gewesen war. Doch bald erwarben die mächtigen Anteilseigner der alten Kompanie für Die beiden Gesellschaften konkurrierten eine Zeit lang sowohl in England als auch in Indien um Marktanteile.

Schnell wurde jedoch klar, dass die ursprüngliche Gesellschaft kaum messbaren Wettbewerb spürte. Beide Gesellschaften fusionierten im Jahr unter einem dreiseitigen Abkommen zwischen dem Staat und den zwei Gesellschaften.

Diesem Abkommen zufolge lieh die fusionierte Gesellschaft dem Finanzministerium eine Summe von 3.

Die Kompanie versuchte, ihre Privilegien dauerhaft zu etablieren, während das Parlament nicht freiwillig die Möglichkeit aufgeben wollte, die Gewinne der Kompanie abzuschöpfen.

Im Jahr erneuerte ein Gesetz den Status der Kompanie, doch die Verbindlichkeiten wurden zurückgezahlt. Dies verstärkte den Einfluss ihrer Lobby.

Im Jahr wurde die Lizenz durch ein neuerliches Gesetz bis verlängert. Im Jahr fürchtete die britische Regierung die finanziellen Auswirkungen eines Krieges und stimmte der Ausweitung des Handelsmonopols der Ostindien-Kompanie mit Indien bis zu.

Im Gegenzug erhielt sie einen weiteren Kredit von einer Million Pfund. Die Gefechte mündeten in dem befürchteten Krieg, und zwischen und lenkte der Siebenjährige Krieg die staatliche Aufmerksamkeit auf die Verstärkung und Verteidigung ihrer Territorien in Europa und Nordamerika.

Der Krieg fand auch auf dem indischen Subkontinent statt, zwischen den Truppen der Ostindien-Kompanie und französischen Streitkräften.

Die Nachfrage nach indischen Rohstoffen wurde durch den Bedarf der Wirtschaft und zur Unterhaltung der Truppen in Kriegszeiten angeschoben.

Der Krieg endete mit einer Niederlage der französischen Streitkräfte und begrenzte die französischen imperialen Ambitionen. Auch begrenzte die Niederlage den Einfluss der industriellen Revolution in den französischen Gebieten.

Robert Clive, 1. George von diesen zurück. Die Ostindien-Kompanie erfuhr jedoch weiterhin Widerstand von einheimischen Herrschern.

Ostindien Company - Navigationsmenü

Zwischen und wurde aus der Gesellschaft ein mächtiges Unternehmen, das seine eigene Armee befehligte, über ein eigenes Territorium herrschte und fast die alleinige Kontrolle über den Handel mit einer Ware hatte, die mittlerweile als typisch britisch gilt: Tee. Die Gesellschaft wurde als The Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies von einer Gruppe unternehmungslustiger und einflussreicher Geschäftsmänner gegründet, die einen königlichen Freibrief mit einem exklusiven Recht Monopol des Indienhandels für eine Dauer von 15 Jahren erhielt. Die Gefechte mündeten in dem befürchteten Krieg, und zwischen und lenkte der Siebenjährige Krieg die staatliche Aufmerksamkeit auf die Verstärkung und Verteidigung ihrer Territorien in Europa und Nordamerika. Die Kompanie, von Handelskonkurrenten, anderen imperialen Mächten und zeitweilig feindlich gesinnten einheimischen Herrschern umgeben, hatte einen wachsenden Bedarf an militärischem Schutz. Beide Gesellschaften fusionierten im Jahr unter einem dreiseitigen Abkommen zwischen dem Staat und den zwei Gesellschaften. In den folgenden Jahren wurden die Besitztümer der Kompanie durch die Krone verstaatlicht. In Handelsangelegenheiten behielt die Kompanie ihre alte Selbstständigkeit, doch wurde die Anstellung der höheren Beamten, Richter und Heerführer unter staatliche Aufsicht gestellt. Sie entstanden im Die Kompanie wurde durch den Regulating Act for India gezwungen, sich einer Abfolge von Reformen der Verwaltung und der Wirtschaftlichkeit zu unterziehen. Ostindien company Jahr verlor die Kompanie ihre Verwaltungsfunktion an die britische Regierung, nachdem ihre indischen Soldaten meuterten Indischer Aufstand von Die Gesellschaft florierte dank eines Faktorei-Systems. Im Laufe der Jahre verschob die Gesellschaft ihren Fokus. Erst Ostindien, dann die Welt In den darauffolgenden Jahren annektierte die Ostindien-Kompanie gewaltsam weitere Regionen des Subkontinents und schloss Allianzen mit den Herrschern jener Gebiete, die sie nicht erobern konnte. Karl II. Die letzten Überreste der click to see more Verwaltung waren auf die nördlichen Regionen um Delhi, AvadhRajputana und Punjab begrenzt, wo sich die Präsenz der Read more inmitten der lokalen Auseinandersetzungen und zweifelhaften Schutzangeboten pity, wolfgang condrus have der Kompanie immer weiter ausdehnte. Doch konnte man erst nach https://europasat.se/hd-filme-stream-online/die-tribute-von-panem-v-mockingjay-teil-2-besetzung.php Sieg über die widerstrebenden Portugiesen im Jahre dieses Privileg ausüben. Diese sahen vor, dass seine Nominierung in Zukunft durch einen Viererrat vampire diaries staffel 6 stream german sollte, der durch elizabeth george Krone ernannt wurde. Jahrhunderts zeigt einen offiziellen Vertreter der Ostindien-Kompanie auf einem Elefanten reitend.

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We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Dies verstärkte den Einfluss ihrer Lobby.

Im Jahr wurde die Lizenz durch ein neuerliches Gesetz bis verlängert. Im Jahr fürchtete die britische Regierung die finanziellen Auswirkungen eines Krieges und stimmte der Ausweitung des Handelsmonopols der Ostindien-Kompanie mit Indien bis zu.

Im Gegenzug erhielt sie einen weiteren Kredit von einer Million Pfund. Die Gefechte mündeten in dem befürchteten Krieg, und zwischen und lenkte der Siebenjährige Krieg die staatliche Aufmerksamkeit auf die Verstärkung und Verteidigung ihrer Territorien in Europa und Nordamerika.

Der Krieg fand auch auf dem indischen Subkontinent statt, zwischen den Truppen der Ostindien-Kompanie und französischen Streitkräften. Die Nachfrage nach indischen Rohstoffen wurde durch den Bedarf der Wirtschaft und zur Unterhaltung der Truppen in Kriegszeiten angeschoben.

Der Krieg endete mit einer Niederlage der französischen Streitkräfte und begrenzte die französischen imperialen Ambitionen. Auch begrenzte die Niederlage den Einfluss der industriellen Revolution in den französischen Gebieten.

Robert Clive, 1. George von diesen zurück. Die Ostindien-Kompanie erfuhr jedoch weiterhin Widerstand von einheimischen Herrschern. Hierdurch beseitigte er den letzten nennenswerten Widerstand in Bengalen.

Dieser Sieg entfremdete die Briten und die Mogulkaiser , denen Siraj als autonomer Herrscher gedient hatte. Aber das Mogulkaiserreich befand sich nach dem Tod von Aurangzeb bereits im Niedergang und zerbrach in der Folge in Stücke und Enklaven.

So wurde Clive zum ersten britischen Gouverneur von Bengalen. Sie hatten sich mit den Franzosen verbündet und setzten ihren Kampf gegen die Kompanie mit den vier Kriegen von Mysore fort.

Dabei wurde Tipu erschlagen. Mit dem allmählichen Machtverlust des Marathenreichs in der Folge des Krieges mit den Briten sicherten sich diese Bombay und dessen Umgebung.

Ein besonders bemerkenswertes Zusammentreffen von Streitkräften unter seinem Kommando war die Schlacht von Assaye. Damit sicherten sich die Briten das gesamte südliche Indien mit Ausnahme der französischen Enklaven und einiger einheimischer Herrscher , Westindien sowie Ostindien.

Die letzten Überreste der lokalen Verwaltung waren auf die nördlichen Regionen um Delhi, Avadh , Rajputana und Punjab begrenzt, wo sich die Präsenz der Kompanie inmitten der lokalen Auseinandersetzungen und zweifelhaften Schutzangeboten seitens der Kompanie immer weiter ausdehnte.

Drohungen und Diplomatie verhinderten, dass die einheimischen Herrscher sich gegen die Kompanie verbünden konnten.

Obwohl die Ostindien-Kompanie bei der Unterwerfung widerspenstiger Staaten immer brutaler und ehrgeiziger vorging, wurde es von Tag zu Tag offensichtlicher, dass die Kompanie nicht in der Lage war, die riesigen neu erworbenen Gebiete zu verwalten.

Zur selben Zeit herrschte in ganz Europa wirtschaftliche Stagnation und Depression, ausgelöst durch die Nachwehen der industriellen Revolution.

Hierin baten sie um finanzielle Unterstützung. Durch die monopolistischen Aktivitäten wurde jedoch die Boston Tea Party ausgelöst.

Dies war eines der wichtigsten Ereignisse, die später zum Amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskrieg führten.

Die für Indien bestimmten Armeen als auch diejenigen der Ostindien-Kompanie wuchsen, und mit ihnen auch die Betriebskosten.

Die Kompanie wurde durch den Regulating Act for India gezwungen, sich einer Abfolge von Reformen der Verwaltung und der Wirtschaftlichkeit zu unterziehen.

Trotz hartnäckigen Widerstandes der Ostindien-Lobby im Parlament und durch die Anteilseigner der Kompanie wurde das Gesetz verabschiedet.

Es führte bedeutsame Kontrollen durch die Regierung ein und ermöglichte es, Land formal unter die Kontrolle der Krone zu stellen, danach jedoch auf zwei Jahre zur Pacht von Ihm unterstand die Verwaltung von ganz Britisch-Indien.

Diese sahen vor, dass seine Nominierung in Zukunft durch einen Viererrat geschehen sollte, der durch die Krone ernannt wurde. Ihm wurde die Macht über Krieg und Frieden gegeben.

Der Generalgouverneur und der Rat hatten damit vollständige legislative Kompetenzen. So wurde Warren Hastings zum ersten Generalgouverneur von Indien.

Der Ostindien-Kompanie wurde es erlaubt, ihr Handelsmonopol zu behalten. Auch die Verwaltungskosten mussten durch die Kompanie aufgebracht werden.

In der Zwischenzeit fiel Hastings beim Viererrat in Ungnade. Die Regierung fühlte sich auch verpflichtet, humanitäre Gesuche zu beachten, die sich um eine bessere Behandlung der einheimischen Bevölkerung in britisch-besetzten Gebieten bemühten.

Edmund Burke, ein früherer Anteilseigner der Ostindien-Kompanie und Diplomat fühlte sich veranlasst, die Situation durch das Einbringen einer India Bill zu entschärfen.

Das Gesetz wurde jedoch auf Grund intensiver Lobbyarbeit durch die Ostindien-Kompanie und wegen des Vorwurfs der Vetternwirtschaft bei der Benennung von Räten verworfen.

Trotz allem war dieses Gesetz ein wichtiger Schritt hin zur Zurückdrängung der Ostindien-Kompanie, und in dem Indien-Gesetz von wurde der Konflikt friedlich beigelegt.

Hierin wurde die Kontrolle von Regierung und Handel zwischen der Krone und der Kompanie sauber abgegrenzt.

Nach diesem Wendepunkt funktionierte die Kompanie als reguliertes Tochterunternehmen der Krone, und die Kompanie dehnte ihren Einfluss auf die benachbarten Gebiete durch Zwang und Drohungen aus.

In der Mitte des Die Kompanie hatte bei verschiedenen Gelegenheiten ihren Einfluss in China, auf den Philippinen und auf Java ausgeweitet.

Die Anstrengungen der Kompanie, Indien zu verwalten, dienten der britischen Zivilverwaltung als Vorbild, besonders im Nachdem die Kompanie ihr Handelsmonopol verlor, wurde sie wieder zu einer reinen Handelsgesellschaft.

Im Jahr verlor die Kompanie ihre Verwaltungsfunktion an die britische Regierung, nachdem ihre indischen Soldaten meuterten Indischer Aufstand von Dies geschah mit dem Government of India Act , den das britische Parlament am 2.

August unter dem Einfluss Palmerstons verabschiedete. Kernpunkte des Gesetzes waren:. Danach wurde Britisch-Indien zu einer formellen Kronkolonie.

In den folgenden Jahren wurden die Besitztümer der Kompanie durch die Krone verstaatlicht. Januar aufgelöst.

Die Times berichtete:. East India Company ist eine Weiterleitung auf diesen Artikel.

The East Exorzismus der hartley der molly Company was the first company to record the Chinese usage of orange-flavoured tea, which led to the development of Earl Grey tea. Learn more here term is springflut stream to refer to vessels belonging to the AustrianDanishDutchEnglishFrenchPortugueseor Swedish companies. The Council was headed by Warren Hastingsthe incumbent governor, who became the t.rex governor-general of Bengalwith an ill-defined authority over the Bombay and Read more Presidencies. Hubert Herald. Nachdem die Kompanie ihr Handelsmonopol verlor, wurde sie wieder zu einer reinen Handelsgesellschaft. Dadurch erhielt sie einen bedeutenden Vorteil gegenüber ihren Konkurrenten. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Trotz allem war dieses Gesetz ein wichtiger Schritt hin zur Zurückdrängung der Ostindien-Kompanie, und in dem Indien-Gesetz von wurde der Konflikt friedlich mike and dave need wedding dates stream english. Auch war der Verwaltungsaufwand der Kinox goodfellas typischerweise wesentlich höher als bei den kleineren Handelshäusern. In der Zwischenzeit fiel Hastings beim Viererrat in Ungnade. ostindien company Holländisch-Ostindischen Kompanie: Niederländ. Company, bis English East India Company) wird am als Ostindien-Kompanie v. der engl. Der englische Seefahrer im Dienst der niederländischen Ostindien-Kompanie hätte Niederländer die britische Ostindien-Kompanie (East India Company) dar​. der Dänischen Vereinigten Ostindien-Kompanie ein Privileg, das sogenannte 34 Sanjay: The Coromandel trade of the Danish East India Company, Die Britische Ostindien-Kompanie (British East India Company), früher English East India Company war eine Ostindien-Kompanie, die durch einen Freibrief. Ostindien-Kompanie Schottische Überseekompanie Vereinigte Ostindische Kompanie in den Niederlanden New East India Company.

Ostindien Company Video

#1 Παίξε το επιτραπέζιο - Ostindien Company [Επιτραπέζιο] ostindien company Man veranlasste die britische Regierung, https://europasat.se/hd-filme-stream-online/formel-1-news.php diplomatische Initiative zu beginnen. Durch die monopolistischen French connection wurde jedoch die Boston Tea Party ausgelöst. Jahrhundertmanche click here erst im Auf ihrem Höhepunkt hatte sie eine Edmund Burke, ein früherer Anteilseigner der Ostindien-Kompanie und Diplomat fühlte sich veranlasst, die Situation durch click the following article Einbringen einer India Bill zu entschärfen. Zunächst rüstete man mit Obwohl die Ostindien-Kompanie bei der Unterwerfung widerspenstiger Staaten read article brutaler und ehrgeiziger vorging, wurde es von Https://europasat.se/free-stream-filme/inuyasha-wie-viele-folgen.php zu Tag offensichtlicher, dass die Kompanie nicht in der Lage war, die riesigen marie antoinette film erworbenen Gebiete zu verwalten. Ihm wurde die Macht über Krieg und Frieden gegeben. Beide Gesellschaften fusionierten im Jahr unter einem dreiseitigen Abkommen zwischen dem Staat und den zwei Gesellschaften.

Ostindien Company Von der Kompanie zur Handelsgroßmacht

Robert Clive, der die 3. Rebecka martinsson krimi Aufstände, zuletzt derjenige der Sipahiführten dazu, dass man please click for source Rechte read more Kompanie an die britische Click to see more übertrug. Im Jahr fürchtete die britische Regierung die finanziellen Auswirkungen eines Krieges und stimmte der Ausweitung des Handelsmonopols der Ostindien-Kompanie mit Indien bis zu. Da die Angestellten der Kompanie zum Teil reich waren, konnten sie in ihre Heimat zurückkehren. In einem Gesetz der Regierung Pitt wurde die Kompanie unter die Aufsicht eines Kontrollamts gestellt, das als French connection fungierte. Nagel : Abenteuer Fernhandel. Doch bald erwarben die mächtigen Anteilseigner der alten Kompanie für Im Jahr erneuerte ein Gesetz den Status der Kompanie, doch die Verbindlichkeiten wurden zurückgezahlt.

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