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Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für empire im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung Französisch-Deutsch für empire im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung für 'empire' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für empire im Online-Wörterbuch europasat.se (​Deutschwörterbuch). Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "Empire" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

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Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für empire im Online-Wörterbuch europasat.se (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für empire im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung im Kontext von „ça empire“ in Französisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: ça a empiré. Externe ungeprüfte Quellen (Deutsch). Le président du Conseil, à. [ ] la tête également d'un empire médiatique. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'empire' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch​. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung für 'empire' im kostenlosen Französisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „ça empire“ in Französisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: ça a empiré. Empire (englisch/französisch für Imperium) bezeichnet im Deutschen: Britisches Weltreich Empire Records, Plattenlabel; Empire (Band), deutsch-britische Metal-Band; Empire (Kasabian-Album), zweites Studioalbum von Kasabian; Empire.

Empire Deutsch Beispielsätze für "empire"

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In previous times events in the world occurred without impinging on one another Fichte , having witnessed the battle at Jena in when Napoleon overwhelmed Prussia, described what he perceived as a deep historical trend:.

There is necessary tendency in every cultivated State to extend itself generally Such is the case in Ancient History As the States become stronger in themselves and cast off that [Papal] foreign power, the tendency towards a Universal Monarchy over the whole Christian World necessarily comes to light This tendency Whether clearly or not—it may be obscurely—yet has this tendency lain at the root of the undertakings of many States in Modern Times Although no individual Epoch may have contemplated this purpose, yet is this the spirit which runs through all these individual Epochs, and invisibly urges them onward.

Fichte's later compatriot, Geographer Alexander von Humboldt — , in the mid-Nineteenth century observed a macro-historic trend of imperial growth in both Hemispheres: "Men of great and strong minds, as well as whole nations, acted under influence of one idea, the purity of which was utterly unknown to them.

Friedrich Ratzel , writing at the same time, observed that the "drive toward the building of continually larger states continues throughout the entirety of history" and is active in the present.

His seventh law stated: "The general trend toward amalgamation transmits the tendency of territorial growth from state to state and increases the tendency in the process of transmission.

Two other contemporaries— Kang Yu-wei and George Vacher de Lapouge —stressed that imperial expansion cannot indefinitely proceed on the definite surface of the globe and therefore world empire is imminent.

Kang Yu-wei in believed that the imperial trend will culminate in the contest between Washington and Berlin [] and Vacher de Lapouge in estimated that the final contest will be between Russia and America in which America is likely to triumph.

This undoubtedly is the logical final stage in the geopolitical theory of evolution. The world is no longer large enough to harbor several self-contained powers The trend toward world domination or hegemony of a single power is but the ultimate consummation of a power-system engrafted upon an otherwise integrated world.

And the onrush of this trend may not come to rest until it has asserted itself throughout our planet The global order still seems to be going through its birth pangs With the last tempest barely over, a new one is gathering.

The year after the War and in the first year of the nuclear age, Albert Einstein and British Philosopher Bertrand Russell , known as prominent pacifists, outlined for the near future a perspective of world empire world government established by force.

Einstein believed that, unless world government is established by agreement, an imperial world government would come by war or wars.

Russian colleague of Russell and Neighbour, Georgy Fedotov , wrote in All empires are but stages on the way to the sole Empire which must swallow all others.

The only question is who will build it and on which foundations. Universal unity is the only alternative to annihilation.

Unity by conference is utopian but unity by conquest by the strongest Power is not and probably the uncompleted in this War will be completed in the next.

Originally drafted as a secret study for the Office of Strategic Services the precursor of the CIA in [] and published as a book three years later, The Struggle for the World The historical stage for a world empire had already been set prior to and independently of the discovery of atomic weapons but these weapons make a world empire inevitable and imminent.

A world empire "is in fact the objective of the Third World War which, in its preliminary stages, has already began". The issue of a world empire "will be decided, and in our day.

In the course of the decision, both of the present antagonists may, it is true, be destroyed, but one of them must be.

Today war has become an instrument of universal destruction, an instrument that destroys the victor and the vanquished At worst, victor and loser would be undistinguishable under the leveling impact of such a catastrophe At best, the destruction on one side would not be quite as great as on the other; the victor would be somewhat better off than the loser and would establish, with the aid of modern technology, his domination over the world.

The outcome of the Third World War This denouement was foreshadowed, not only by present facts, but by historical precedents, since, in the histories of other civilizations, the time of troubles had been apt to culminate in the delivery of a knock-out blow resulting in the establishment of a universal state The year this volume of A Study of History was published, US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles announced " a knock-out blow " as an official doctrine, a detailed Plan was elaborated and Fortune magazine mapped the design.

Another term applied by the strategists was "Sunday punch". A pupil of Toynbee, William McNeill , associated on the case of ancient China, which "put a quietus upon the disorders of the warring states by erecting an imperial bureaucratic structure The warring states of the Twentieth century seem headed for a similar resolution of their conflicts.

Chinese classic Sima Qian d. He did not use the term bacchanal but he coined on the occasion an associating word: "Gentlemen, you do not have a war plan.

You have a wargasm! According to the circumscription theory of Robert Carneiro , "the more sharply circumscribed area, the more rapidly it will become politically unified.

Correspondingly, these are the three most circumscribed civilizations in human history. The Empires of Egypt established by Narmer c.

German Sociologist Friedrich Tenbruck, criticizing the Western idea of progress, emphasized that China and Egypt remained at one particular stage of development for millennia.

This stage was universal empire. The development of Egypt and China came to a halt once their empires "reached the limits of their natural habitat".

Carneiro explored the Bronze Age civilizations. Stuart J. Kaufman, Richard Little and William Wohlforth researched the next three millennia, comparing eight civilizations.

They conclude: The "rigidity of the borders" contributed importantly to hegemony in every concerned case.

The circumscription theory was stressed in the comparative studies of the Roman and Chinese Empires. The circumscribed Chinese Empire recovered from all falls, while the fall of Rome, by contrast, was fatal.

The ancient Chinese system was relatively enclosed, whereas the European system began to expand its reach to the rest of the world from the onset of system formation… In addition, overseas provided outlet for territorial competition, thereby allowing international competition on the European continent to He explained the durability of the European states system by its overseas expansion: "Overseas expansion and the system of states were born at the same time; the vitality that burst the bounds of the Western world also destroyed its unity.

In the nineteenth century, he wrote during the Second World War, imperialist wars were waged against "primitive" peoples.

Since , however, this has no longer been possible: "the situation has radically changed". Now wars are between "imperial powers.

For example, the more attention Russia, France and the United States paid to expanding into far-flung territories in imperial fashion, the less attention they paid to one another, and the more peaceful, in a sense, the world was.

But by the late nineteenth century, the consolidation of the great nation-states and empires of the West was consummated, and territorial gains could only be made at the expense of one another.

Herz outlined one "chief function" of the overseas expansion and the impact of its end:. Thus the openness of the world contributed to the consolidation of the territorial system.

The end of the 'world frontier' and the resulting closedness of an interdependent world inevitably affected the system's effectiveness.

Some later commentators [ who? For some commentators, the passing of the Nineteenth century seemed destined to mark the end of this long era of European empire building.

The unexplored and unclaimed "blank" spaces on the world map were rapidly diminishing The "closure" of the global imperial system implied The opportunity for any system to expand in size seems almost a necessary condition for it to remain balanced, at least over the long haul.

Far from being impossible or exceedingly improbable, systemic hegemony is likely under two conditions: "when the boundaries of the international system remain stable and no new major powers emerge from outside the system.

The geopolitical condition of "global closure" [] will remain to the end of history. Since "the contemporary international system is global, we can rule out the possibility that geographic expansion of the system will contribute to the emergence of a new balance of power, as it did so many times in the past.

One of leading experts on world-system theory , Christopher Chase-Dunn , noted that the circumscription theory is applicable for the global system, since the global system is circumscribed.

Given "constant spatial parameters" of the global system, its unipolar structure is neither historically unusual nor theoretically surprising.

Randall Schweller theorized that a "closed international system", such as the global became a century ago, would reach " entropy " in a kind of thermodynamic law.

Once the state of entropy is reached, there is no going back. The initial conditions are lost forever.

Stressing the curiosity of the fact, Schweller writes that since the moment the modern world became a closed system, the process has worked in only one direction: from many poles to two poles to one pole.

Thus unipolarity might represent the entropy—stable and permanent loss of variation—in the global system. Chalmers Johnson argues that the US globe-girding network of hundreds of military bases already represents a global empire in its initial form:.

For a major power, prosecution of any war that is not a defense of the homeland usually requires overseas military bases for strategic reasons.

After the war is over, it is tempting for the victor to retain such bases and easy to find reasons to do so.

Commonly, preparedness for a possible resumption of hostilities will be invoked. Simon Dalby associates the network of bases with the Roman imperial system:.

That [military] presence literally builds the cultural logic of the garrison troops into the landscape, a permanent reminder of imperial control.

Kenneth Pomeranz and Harvard Historian Niall Ferguson share the above-cited views: "With American military bases in over countries, we have hardly seen the end of empire.

Conventional maps of US military deployments understate the extent of America's military reach. A Defense Department map of the world, which shows the areas of responsibility of the five major regional commands , suggests that America's sphere of military influence is now literally global … The regional combatant commanders— the 'pro-consuls' of this imperium —have responsibility for swaths of territory beyond the wildest imaginings of their Roman predecessors.

Another Harvard Historian Charles S. Compared with which, the foundation of the Macedonian, the Roman and the British, sink into insignificance.

Nothing has ever existed like this disparity of power. The Pax Britannica was run on the cheap. The Roman Empire stretched further afield, but there was another great empire in Persia and a larger one in China.

There is … no comparison. Times Atlas of Empires numbers 70 empires in the world history. Niall Ferguson lists numerous parallels between them and the United States.

All dominant empires thought they were special. In , Historian Ludwig Dehio predicted global unification due to the circumscription of the global system, although he did not use this term.

Being global, the system can neither expand nor be subject to external intrusion as the European states system had been for centuries:.

In all previous struggles for supremacy, attempts to unite the European peninsula in a single state have been condemned to failure primarily through the intrusion of new forces from outside the old Occident.

The Occident was an open area. But the globe was not, and, for that very reason, ultimately destined to be unified… And this very process [of unification] was clearly reflected in both World Wars.

Fifteen years later, Dehio confirmed his hypothesis: The European system owed its durability to its overseas outlet. During the same time, Quincy Wright developed a similar concept.

Balance-of-power politics has aimed less at preserving peace than at preserving the independence of states and preventing the development of world empire.

In the course of history, the balance of power repeatedly reemerged, but on ever-wider scale. Eventually, the scale became global.

Five scholars— Hornell Hart , [] Raoul Naroll , [] Louis Morano, [] Rein Taagepera [] and the author of the circumscription theory Robert Carneiro [] [] —researched expanding imperial cycles.

They worked with historical atlases but the advent of YouTube provided us with a better visualization.

Naroll and Carneiro found that this time is close at hand: around the year and respectively. No imperialism, but technical and strategic problems of security urge America to rule the skies of the globe, just as Britain during the last century ruled the seas of the world… Pacifists and anti-imperialists will be shocked by this logic.

They will try to find an escape. But they will try in vain… At the end of the war the crushing superiority of American plane production will be an established fact… The solution of the problem … is by no means ideal, nor even satisfactory.

But it is the minor evil… []. This period would be necessary transitory stage before World State is eventually established, though he did not specify how the last transformation is expected to occur.

Coudenhove-Kalergi's follower in the teleological theory of World State, Toynbee, supposed the traditional way of universal conquest and emphasized that the world is ripe for conquest: "…Hitler's eventual failure to impose peace on the world by the force of arms was due, not to any flaw in his thesis that the world was ripe for conquest, but to an accidental combination of incidental errors in his measures…" But "in falling by so narrow a margin to win the prize of world-dominion for himself, Hitler had left the prize dangling within the reach of any successor capable of pursuing the same aims of world-conquest with a little more patience, prudence, and tact.

For a post-Hitlerian empire-builder, Hitler's derelict legacy was a gift of the Gods. Dissociating America from Rome, Eisenhower gave a pessimistic forecast.

What we must do is to assist these [West European] peoples. The ultimate form of empire was described by Michael Doyle in his Empires.

It is empire in which its two main components—the ruling core and the ruled periphery—merged to form one integrated whole. At this stage the empire as defined ceases to exist and becomes world state.

Doyle examplifies the transformation on the case of the Roman Emperor Caracalla whose legislation in AD extended the Roman citizenship to all inhabitants of the Mediterranean world.

The article is partly a reply on the published a year earlier bestseller The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers which predicted imminent US "imperial overstretch.

Envisaging a world empire of either the United States or the Soviet Union whoever is victorious in World War III , Bertrand Russell projected the Roman scenario too: "Like the Romans, they will, in the course of time, extend citizenship to the vanquished.

There will then be a true world state, and it will be possible to forget that it will have owed its origin to conquest.

Both "were good auguries for the prospect that, in a post-Modern chapter of Western history, a supranational commonwealth originally based on the hegemony of a paramount power over its satellites might eventually be put on the sounder basis of a constitutional partnership in which all the people of all the partner states would have their fare share in the conduct of common affairs.

Historian Maks Ostrovski finds above mentioned cosmopolitan reformations to be the characteristic fate of persistent empires. When such a reformation occurs in our world, he writes, the green card would be abolished since all earth inhabitants would have it by birth.

This cosmopolitan World State, as the records of earlier circumscribed civilizations suggest, will last millennia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Empires. Geographically extensive group of states and peoples united and ruled either by a central authority or a central figure.

This article is about the political and historical term. For other uses, see Empire disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Umpire. Mongol Empire in the 13th century. Almohad Empire. This section does not cite any sources.

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April Learn how and when to remove this template message. The German Empire in Further information: Fall of the Western Roman Empire.

Main article: Imperialism. Main article: Carneiro's circumscription theory. Main article: American empire. See also: Pax Americana.

List of countries spanning more than one continent List of Hindu Empires and Dynasties. Retrieved Oxford Dictionary Online.

Retrieved 21 October In later use also: an extensive group of subject territories ultimately under the rule of a single sovereign state.

New York: Oxford University Press. Globalization and Violence, Vol. London: Sage Publications. Social Science History.

The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 26 October Your Dictionary. LoveToKnow, Corp. Collins English Dictionary.

Kasperson, Roger E. University of Toronto Press. Archived from the original on September 29, Retrieved September 23, Stanford Report.

Ancient History Encyclopedia. Encarta Historical Essays. Somali Sultanate: the Geledi city-state over years. Transaction Publishers. Guzman, "Were the barbarians a negative or positive factor in ancient and medieval history?

Morality and Justice in Islamic Economics and Finance. Edward Elgar Publishing. Harrison , Peter L.

Berger Developing cultures: case studies. Edward G. London: Packard Humanities Institute. The New York Times. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 10 August A History of State and Religion in India.

Stanford University Press. Retrieved 16 February By common law, trail by jury, the King James Authorized Version of the Bible, the English language, and the British navy had been spread around the globe.

National Book Trust, India. Nation-states and nationalisms organization, ideology and solidarity. Polity Press. Prestowitz 's version it also "quacks" like a duck.

Theory and Society. The Journal of General Education. History of the Later Roman Empire. New York: Dover Publications. Economic and Political Weekly.

Text available here Archived at the Wayback Machine , author link here. No Need to Run Away from Label". Archived from the original on January 23, Back cover.

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Murray, London, Putnam's Sons, , p Thompson, Lawrence G. Putnam's Sons, , p XI. Knopf, , pp. Knopf, , p IX, p.

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Brill, Peter J. Taylor, London: Belhaven Press, Gordon, Philip H. Reyna, Stephen P. Abernethy, David. New Haven: Yale University Press Bowden, Brett University of Chicago Press.

Barkey, Karen. New York: Cambridge University Press Burbank, Jane and Frederick Cooper. Princeton: Princeton University Press July—August Foreign Affairs.

Retrieved 26 December Amazon Books , The uncertain future of the sovereign state. London: Routledge , Cooper, Frederick.

Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History. Berkeley: University of California Press Darwin, John. London: Bloomsbury Press Elliott, J.

Findlay, Ronald and Kevin H. War and Empire in the Twentieth Century. Aberdeen University Press.

Johan Galtung January Howe, Stephen Empire: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford Press. Kamen, Henry.

New York: Random House Innis, Harold , rev. Empire and Communications. Innis; foreword by Marshall McLuhan.

Toronto, Ont. Kumar, Krishan. Pluto Press. New York: Modern Library Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. The Portuguese Empire in Asia, — London: Longman Tracy, James D.

Empire at Wikipedia's sister projects. Empires largest Ancient great powers Medieval great powers Modern great powers European colonialism.

Autonomous types of first-tier subdivision administration. Asymmetric federalism Confederation Corporative federalism Dual federalism Ethnic federalism Federacy Federal monarchy Federal republic Federated state Federation Fiscal federalism Symmetric federalism.

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Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. The entry of the U. The end of October , in Kiel , in northern Germany, saw the beginning of the German Revolution of — Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost, initiating the uprising.

On 3 November, the revolt spread to other cities and states of the country, in many of which workers' and soldiers' councils were established.

Meanwhile, Hindenburg and the senior generals lost confidence in the Kaiser and his government. Bulgaria signed the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September So, in November , with internal revolution, the Allies advancing toward Germany on the Western Front , Austria-Hungary falling apart from multiple ethnic tensions, its other allies out of the war and pressure from the German high command, the Kaiser and all German ruling kings, dukes, and princes abdicated, and German nobility was abolished.

The new government led by the German Social Democrats called for and received an armistice on 11 November. It was succeeded by the Weimar Republic.

The Empire's legislation was based on two organs, the Bundesrat and the Reichstag parliament. There was universal male suffrage for the Reichstag, however legislation would have to pass both houses.

The Bundesrat contained representatives of the states. Before unification, German territory excluding Austria and Switzerland was made up of 27 constituent states.

These states consisted of kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies, principalities, free Hanseatic cities and one imperial territory.

The free cities had a republican form of government on the state level, even though the Empire at large was constituted as a monarchy, and so were most of the states.

Prussia was the largest of the constituent states, covering two-thirds of the empire's territory. Several of these states had gained sovereignty following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire , and had been de facto sovereign from the mids onward.

Others were created as sovereign states after the Congress of Vienna in Territories were not necessarily contiguous—many existed in several parts, as a result of historical acquisitions, or, in several cases, divisions of the ruling families.

Some of the initially existing states, in particular Hanover, were abolished and annexed by Prussia as a result of the war of Each component of the German Empire sent representatives to the Federal Council Bundesrat and, via single-member districts, the Imperial Diet Reichstag.

Relations between the Imperial centre and the Empire's components were somewhat fluid and were developed on an ongoing basis.

The extent to which the German Emperor could, for example, intervene on occasions of disputed or unclear succession was much debated on occasion—for example in the inheritance crisis of the Lippe-Detmold.

Shortly after the Empire was proclaimed, Bismarck implemented a convention in which his sovereign would only send and receive envoys to and from other German states as the King of Prussia, while envoys from Berlin sent to foreign nations always received credentials from the monarch in his capacity as German Emperor.

In this way, the Prussian foreign ministry was largely tasked with managing relations with the other German states while the Imperial foreign ministry managed Germany's external relations.

Population density c. The only minority language with a significant number of speakers 5. The non-German Germanic languages 0.

Low German was spoken throughout northern Germany and, though linguistically as distinct from High German Hochdeutsch as from Dutch and English, is considered "German", hence also its name.

Danish and Frisian were spoken predominantly in the north of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein and Dutch in the western border areas of Prussia Hanover , Westphalia , and the Rhine Province.

Polish and other Slavic languages 6. A few 0. Czech and Moravian. Generally, religious demographics of the early modern period hardly changed.

Confessional prejudices, especially towards mixed marriages, were still common. Bit by bit, through internal migration, religious blending was more and more common.

In areas affected by immigration in the Ruhr area and Westphalia, as well as in some large cities, religious landscape changed substantially.

This was especially true in largely Catholic areas of Westphalia, which changed through Protestant immigration from the eastern provinces.

Politically, the confessional division of Germany had considerable consequences. In Catholic areas, the Centre Party had a big electorate.

This began to change with the secularization arising in the last decades of the German Empire. In Germany's overseas colonial empire , millions of subjects practiced various Indigenous religions in addition to the Christian missionaries and colonists.

Greater Imperial coat of arms of Germany. Middle Imperial coat of arms of Germany. Lesser Imperial coat of arms of Germany.

The defeat and aftermath of the First World War and the penalties imposed by the Treaty of Versailles shaped the positive memory of the Empire, especially among Germans who distrusted and despised the Weimar Republic.

Conservatives, liberals, socialists, nationalists, Catholics and Protestants all had their own interpretations, which led to a fractious political and social climate in Germany in the aftermath of the empire's collapse.

Under Bismarck, a united German state had finally been achieved, but it remained a Prussian-dominated state and did not include German Austria as Pan-German nationalists had desired.

The influence of Prussian militarism , the Empire's colonial efforts and its vigorous, competitive industrial prowess all gained it the dislike and envy of other nations.

The German Empire enacted a number of progressive reforms, such as Europe's first social welfare system and freedom of press.

There was also a modern system for electing the federal parliament, the Reichstag, in which every adult man had one vote.

This enabled the Socialists and the Catholic Centre Party to play considerable roles in the empire's political life despite the continued hostility of Prussian aristocrats.

The era of the German Empire is well remembered in Germany as one of great cultural and intellectual vigour.

Thomas Mann published his novel Buddenbrooks in Theodor Mommsen received the Nobel prize for literature a year later for his Roman history.

Painters like the groups Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke made a significant contribution to modern art.

The AEG turbine factory in Berlin by Peter Behrens from was a milestone in classic modern architecture and an outstanding example of emerging functionalism.

The social, economic, and scientific successes of this Gründerzeit , or founding epoch, have sometimes led the Wilhelmine era to be regarded as a golden age.

In the field of economics, the " Kaiserzeit " laid the foundation of Germany's status as one of the world's leading economic powers. The iron and coal industries of the Ruhr , the Saar and Upper Silesia especially contributed to that process.

The first motorcar was built by Karl Benz in The enormous growth of industrial production and industrial potential also led to a rapid urbanisation of Germany, which turned the Germans into a nation of city dwellers.

Many historians have emphasized the central importance of a German Sonderweg or "special path" or "exceptionalism" as the root of Nazism and the German catastrophe in the 20th century.

According to the historiography by Kocka , the process of nation-building from above had very grievous long-term implications.

In terms of parliamentary democracy, Parliament was kept weak, the parties were fragmented, and there was a high level of mutual distrust.

The Nazis built on the illiberal, anti-pluralist elements of Weimar's political culture. The Junker elites the large landowners in the east and senior civil servants used their great power and influence well into the twentieth century to frustrate any movement toward democracy.

They played an especially negative role in the crisis of — Bismarck's emphasis on military force amplified the voice of the officer corps, which combined advanced modernisation of military technology with reactionary politics.

The rising upper-middle class elites, in the business, financial and professional worlds, tended to accept the values of the old traditional elites.

The German Empire was for Hans-Ulrich Wehler a strange mixture of highly successful capitalist industrialisation and socio-economic modernisation on the one hand, and of surviving pre-industrial institutions, power relations and traditional cultures on the other.

Wehler argues that it produced a high degree of internal tension, which led on the one hand to the suppression of socialists, Catholics and reformers, and on the other hand to a highly aggressive foreign policy.

Hans-Ulrich Wehler , a leader of the Bielefeld School of social history, places the origins of Germany's path to disaster in the s—s, when economic modernisation took place, but political modernisation did not happen and the old Prussian rural elite remained in firm control of the army, diplomacy and the civil service.

Traditional, aristocratic, premodern society battled an emerging capitalist, bourgeois, modernising society.

Recognising the importance of modernising forces in industry and the economy and in the cultural realm, Wehler argues that reactionary traditionalism dominated the political hierarchy of power in Germany, as well as social mentalities and in class relations Klassenhabitus.

The catastrophic German politics between and are interpreted in terms of a delayed modernisation of its political structures.

At the core of Wehler's interpretation is his treatment of "the middle class" and "revolution", each of which was instrumental in shaping the 20th century.

Wehler's examination of Nazi rule is shaped by his concept of "charismatic domination", which focuses heavily on Hitler.

The historiographical concept of a German Sonderweg has had a turbulent history. They stressed the strong bureaucratic state, reforms initiated by Bismarck and other strong leaders, the Prussian service ethos, the high culture of philosophy and music, and Germany's pioneering of a social welfare state.

In the s, historians in West Germany argued that the Sonderweg led Germany to the disaster of — The special circumstances of German historical structures and experiences, were interpreted as preconditions that, while not directly causing National Socialism, did hamper the development of a liberal democracy and facilitate the rise of fascism.

The Sonderweg paradigm has provided the impetus for at least three strands of research in German historiography: the " long 19th century ", the history of the bourgeoisie, and comparisons with the West.

After , increased attention to cultural dimensions and to comparative and relational history moved German historiography to different topics, with much less attention paid to the Sonderweg.

While some historians have abandoned the Sonderweg thesis, they have not provided a generally accepted alternative interpretation.

In addition to present-day Germany, large parts of what comprised the German Empire now belong to several other modern European countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the German nation-state existing from until For other uses, see German Empire disambiguation.

Central European state to Coat of arms — Federal parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy — Federal parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy under a military dictatorship — Imperial Diet Federal Council.

Until :. Area and population not including colonial possessions. Main article: Unification of Germany. Main article: Founding of the German Empire.

Part of a series on the. German Confederation Zollverein. Occupation Ostgebiete. Reunification New federal states. Main article: German colonial empire.

Further information: Economic history of Germany. See also: Urbanization in the German Empire. Main article: Kulturkampf.

Main article: Year of the Three Emperors. Main article: German entry into World War I. Main article: Constitution of the German Empire.

Main article: States of the German Empire. See also: List of historic states of Germany. Main article: Sonderweg. Denotes territories lost in World War I.

Denotes territories lost in both World Wars. Denotes territories lost in World War II. German Empire portal Germany portal. Small islands also existed in Recklinghausen Westphalia with Retrieved 25 April Archived from the original on 5 April German Wikisource.

Retrieved 2 April The term " Kaiserreich " literally denotes an empire — particularly a hereditary empire led by an emperor, although " Reich " has been used in German to denote the Roman Empire because it had a weak hereditary tradition.

In the case of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich , which is properly translated as "German Empire" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a " presidency " of a confederation of German states led by the King of Prussia who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring to the German people, but was not emperor of Germany as in an emperor of a state.

The World Book dictionary, Volume 1. World Book, Inc. Whitaker's almanack, Refers to the term Deutsches Reich being translated into English as "German Realm", up to and including the Nazi period.

Oxford: Berghahn, ; James Retallack, ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, A History of Modern Germany: to the Present.

Eine Dokumentensammlung nebst Einführungen. Band: Gesamtdeutschland, Anhaltische Staaten und Baden. Springer, Berlin , pp.

Retrieved 2 December War in Human Civilization. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 17 November Talboys, David Alphonso ed. London: H.

Retrieved 23 July European Constitutional History. Cambridge UP. The American Century in Europe. Cornell University Press. German Studies Review.

New York: iUniverse. A History of Modern Germany Since London: Continuum. German History. Journal of Southern African Studies.

Imperial Germany — Table 1. Merck," Business History Review. Volume: Issue: 3. Grenville, Europe reshaped, — p. Dwyer, ed.

Modern Prussian History: — pp. Cambridge Illustrated History of Germany. Cambridge University Press. The German Empire: — New York: Random House.

Jarausch, eds. Retrieved 19 April German Anglophobia and the Great War, — Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 20 January Library of Congress.

Journal of Contemporary History. None of the series has yet been translated into English. Barker, J.

Modern Germany; her political and economic problems, her foreign and domestic policy, her ambitions, and the causes of her success Berghahn, Volker Rolf.

German Studies Review , vol. Carroll, E. Germany and the great powers, — A study in public opinion and foreign policy ; online at Questia also online review ; pp; written for advanced students.

Cecil, Lamar. Imperial Germany and the Great War, — 2nd ed. Bismarck and state socialism; an exposition of the social and economic legislation of Germany since pp Dawson, William Harbutt.

Municipal life and government in Germany ; pp describes the workings of local government and the famous bureaucracy Dawson, William Harbutt.

Germany and the Germans pp; politics and parties, Volume 2 Eyck, Erich. Bismarck and the German Empire excerpt and text search Fischer, Fritz.

Geiss, Imanuel. Imperial Culture in Germany, — Kennedy, Paul. The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism, — 2nd ed.

A constitutional history of Germany in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries Kurlander, Eric. Levy, Richard S. Milward, Alan S.

The Development of the Economies of Continental Europe: — pp 17— Mombauer, Annika and Wilhelm Deist, eds. Nipperdey, Thomas.

Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck dense coverage of chief topics Padfield, Peter. Reagin, Nancy Journal of Modern History.

Retallack, James. Imperial Germany — Ritter, Gerhard. Escape into War? The Foreign Policy of Imperial Germany.

Smith, Helmut Walser, ed. The German Empire, — Random House, Stern, Fritz. Gold and Iron: Bismarck, Bleichroder, and the Building of the German Empire Bismarck worked closely with this leading banker and financier excerpt and text search Steinberg, Jonathan.

Berg, German Women for Empire, — Berghahn, Volker Rolf. Dawson, William Harbutt. Germany at Home pp; popular description of social life in villages and cities Vizetelly, Henry.

London, Volume 2. World War I. Home fronts. Bulgarian mobilization Ottoman mobilization. Pacifism Anti-war movement. Category Portal.

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Categories : German Empire Former empires Former monarchies of Europe Modern history of Germany s in Germany s in Germany s in Germany s in Germany s in Germany Germanic empires States and territories established in States and territories disestablished in establishments in Germany disestablishments in Germany 19th century in Germany 20th century in Germany by period.

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Flag Coat of arms — The German Empire in Friedrich III. Preceded by. North German Confederation. Kingdom of Bavaria. Kingdom of Württemberg.

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State Capital Kingdoms Königreiche. Bavaria Bayern. Hesse Hessen. Duchies Herzogtümer. Brunswick Braunschweig. Saxe-Altenburg Sachsen-Altenburg.

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World War II. Look up German Empire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to German Empire.

Here entry of the U. The era of the German Empire is well remembered in Germany as one of great cultural https://europasat.se/free-stream-filme/ant-man-kinox.php intellectual vigour. Confessional prejudices, especially towards mixed marriages, were still common. Knopf,p Pluto Press. By the online anschauen anmeldung kostenlos filme ohne of World War I —German industry switched to war production. Germany was not weighted down with an expensive just click for source empire that needed defense. French Third Republic.

Wilhelm II and his advisers committed a fatal diplomatic error when they allowed the " Reinsurance Treaty " that Bismarck had negotiated with Tsarist Russia to lapse.

Germany was left with no firm ally but Austria-Hungary , and her support for action in annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina in further soured relations with Russia.

By Wilhelm had completely picked apart the careful power balance established by Bismarck and Britain turned to France in the Entente Cordiale.

Germany's only other ally besides Austria was the Kingdom of Italy , but it remained an ally only pro forma. When war came, Italy saw more benefit in an alliance with Britain, France, and Russia, which, in the secret Treaty of London in promised it the frontier districts of Austria where Italians formed the majority of the population and also colonial concessions.

Germany did acquire a second ally that same year when the Ottoman Empire entered the war on its side, but in the long run supporting the Ottoman war effort only drained away German resources from the main fronts.

This unconditional support for Austria-Hungary was called a "blank cheque" by historians, including German Fritz Fischer.

Subsequent interpretation — for example at the Versailles Peace Conference — was that this "blank cheque" licensed Austro-Hungarian aggression regardless of the diplomatic consequences, and thus Germany bore responsibility for starting the war , or at least provoking a wider conflict.

Germany began the war by targeting its chief rival, France. Germany saw France as its principal danger on the European continent as it could mobilize much faster than Russia and bordered Germany's industrial core in the Rhineland.

Unlike Britain and Russia, the French entered the war mainly for revenge against Germany, in particular for France's loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in The German high command knew that France would muster its forces to go into Alsace-Lorraine.

Aside from the very unofficial Septemberprogramm , the Germans never stated a clear list of goals that they wanted out of the war.

Germany did not want to risk lengthy battles along the Franco-German border and instead adopted the Schlieffen Plan , a military strategy designed to cripple France by invading Belgium and Luxembourg , sweeping down to encircle and crush both Paris and the French forces along the Franco-German border in a quick victory.

After defeating France, Germany would turn to attack Russia. The plan required violating the official neutrality of Belgium and Luxembourg, which Britain had guaranteed by treaty.

However, the Germans had calculated that Britain would enter the war regardless of whether they had formal justification to do so.

However, the evolution of weapons over the last century heavily favored defense over offense, especially thanks to the machine gun, so that it took proportionally more offensive force to overcome a defensive position.

This resulted in the German lines on the offense contracting to keep up the offensive time table while correspondingly the French lines were extending.

In addition, some German units that were originally slotted for the German far right were transferred to the Eastern Front in reaction to Russia mobilizing far faster than anticipated.

The combined effect had the German right flank sweeping down in front of Paris instead of behind it exposing the German Right flank to the extending French lines and attack from strategic French reserves stationed in Paris.

Attacking the exposed German right flank, the French Army and the British Army put up a strong resistance to the defense of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne , resulting in the German Army retreating to defensive positions along the river Aisne.

A subsequent Race to the Sea resulted in a long-held stalemate between the German Army and the Allies in dug-in trench warfare positions from Alsace to Flanders.

A series of allied offensives in against German positions in Artois and Champagne resulted in huge allied casualties and little territorial change.

German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn decided to exploit the defensive advantages that had shown themselves in the Allied offensives by attempting to goad France into attacking strong defensive positions near the ancient city of Verdun.

Verdun had been one of the last cities to hold out against the German Army in , and Falkenhayn predicted that as a matter of national pride the French would do anything to ensure that it was not taken.

He expected that he could take strong defensive positions in the hills overlooking Verdun on the east bank of the River Meuse to threaten the city and the French would launch desperate attacks against these positions.

He predicted that French losses would be greater than those of the Germans and that continued French commitment of troops to Verdun would "bleed the French Army white.

However, Falkenhayn's prediction of a greater ratio of French killed proved to be wrong as both sides took heavy casualties.

Falkenhayn was replaced by Erich Ludendorff , and with no success in sight, the German Army pulled out of Verdun in December and the battle ended.

While the Western Front was a stalemate for the German Army, the Eastern Front eventually proved to be a great success. Despite initial setbacks due to the unexpectedly rapid mobilisation of the Russian army, which resulted in a Russian invasion of East Prussia and Austrian Galicia , the badly organised and supplied Russian Army faltered and the German and Austro-Hungarian armies thereafter steadily advanced eastward.

The Germans benefited from political instability in Russia and its population's desire to end the war. Germany believed that if Lenin could create further political unrest, Russia would no longer be able to continue its war with Germany, allowing the German Army to focus on the Western Front.

In March , the Tsar was ousted from the Russian throne, and in November a Bolshevik government came to power under the leadership of Lenin.

Facing political opposition from the Bolsheviks, he decided to end Russia's campaign against Germany, Austria-Hungary , the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria in order to redirect Bolshevik energy to eliminating internal dissent.

In March , by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk , the Bolshevik government gave Germany and the Ottoman Empire enormous territorial and economic concessions in exchange for an end to war on the Eastern Front.

Thus Germany had at last achieved its long-wanted dominance of "Mitteleuropa" Central Europe and could now focus fully on defeating the Allies on the Western Front.

In practice, however, the forces that were needed to garrison and secure the new territories were a drain on the German war effort.

Germany quickly lost almost all its colonies. He also invaded Portuguese Mozambique to gain his forces supplies and to pick up more Askari recruits.

His force was still active at war's end. The defeat of Russia in enabled Germany to transfer hundreds of thousands of troops from the Eastern to the Western Front, giving it a numerical advantage over the Allies.

By retraining the soldiers in new stormtrooper tactics, the Germans expected to unfreeze the battlefield and win a decisive victory before the army of the United States , which had now entered the war on the side of the Allies, arrived in strength.

Meanwhile, soldiers had become radicalised by the Russian Revolution and were less willing to continue fighting. The war effort sparked civil unrest in Germany, while the troops, who had been constantly in the field without relief, grew exhausted and lost all hope of victory.

In the summer of , the British Army was at its peak strength with as many as 4. The concept of " total war " meant that supplies had to be redirected towards the armed forces and, with German commerce being stopped by the Allied naval blockade , German civilians were forced to live in increasingly meagre conditions.

First food prices were controlled, then rationing was introduced. During the war about , German civilians died from malnutrition.

Towards the end of the war conditions deteriorated rapidly on the home front, with severe food shortages reported in all urban areas. The causes included the transfer of many farmers and food workers into the military, combined with the overburdened railway system, shortages of coal, and the British blockade.

The winter of — was known as the "turnip winter", because the people had to survive on a vegetable more commonly reserved for livestock, as a substitute for potatoes and meat, which were increasingly scarce.

Thousands of soup kitchens were opened to feed the hungry, who grumbled that the farmers were keeping the food for themselves.

Even the army had to cut the soldiers' rations. Many Germans wanted an end to the war and increasing numbers began to associate with the political left, such as the Social Democratic Party and the more radical Independent Social Democratic Party , which demanded an end to the war.

The entry of the U. The end of October , in Kiel , in northern Germany, saw the beginning of the German Revolution of — Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost, initiating the uprising.

On 3 November, the revolt spread to other cities and states of the country, in many of which workers' and soldiers' councils were established.

Meanwhile, Hindenburg and the senior generals lost confidence in the Kaiser and his government. Bulgaria signed the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September So, in November , with internal revolution, the Allies advancing toward Germany on the Western Front , Austria-Hungary falling apart from multiple ethnic tensions, its other allies out of the war and pressure from the German high command, the Kaiser and all German ruling kings, dukes, and princes abdicated, and German nobility was abolished.

The new government led by the German Social Democrats called for and received an armistice on 11 November.

It was succeeded by the Weimar Republic. The Empire's legislation was based on two organs, the Bundesrat and the Reichstag parliament.

There was universal male suffrage for the Reichstag, however legislation would have to pass both houses. The Bundesrat contained representatives of the states.

Before unification, German territory excluding Austria and Switzerland was made up of 27 constituent states.

These states consisted of kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies, principalities, free Hanseatic cities and one imperial territory.

The free cities had a republican form of government on the state level, even though the Empire at large was constituted as a monarchy, and so were most of the states.

Prussia was the largest of the constituent states, covering two-thirds of the empire's territory. Several of these states had gained sovereignty following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire , and had been de facto sovereign from the mids onward.

Others were created as sovereign states after the Congress of Vienna in Territories were not necessarily contiguous—many existed in several parts, as a result of historical acquisitions, or, in several cases, divisions of the ruling families.

Some of the initially existing states, in particular Hanover, were abolished and annexed by Prussia as a result of the war of Each component of the German Empire sent representatives to the Federal Council Bundesrat and, via single-member districts, the Imperial Diet Reichstag.

Relations between the Imperial centre and the Empire's components were somewhat fluid and were developed on an ongoing basis. The extent to which the German Emperor could, for example, intervene on occasions of disputed or unclear succession was much debated on occasion—for example in the inheritance crisis of the Lippe-Detmold.

Shortly after the Empire was proclaimed, Bismarck implemented a convention in which his sovereign would only send and receive envoys to and from other German states as the King of Prussia, while envoys from Berlin sent to foreign nations always received credentials from the monarch in his capacity as German Emperor.

In this way, the Prussian foreign ministry was largely tasked with managing relations with the other German states while the Imperial foreign ministry managed Germany's external relations.

Population density c. The only minority language with a significant number of speakers 5. The non-German Germanic languages 0.

Low German was spoken throughout northern Germany and, though linguistically as distinct from High German Hochdeutsch as from Dutch and English, is considered "German", hence also its name.

Danish and Frisian were spoken predominantly in the north of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein and Dutch in the western border areas of Prussia Hanover , Westphalia , and the Rhine Province.

Polish and other Slavic languages 6. A few 0. Czech and Moravian. Generally, religious demographics of the early modern period hardly changed.

Confessional prejudices, especially towards mixed marriages, were still common. Bit by bit, through internal migration, religious blending was more and more common.

In areas affected by immigration in the Ruhr area and Westphalia, as well as in some large cities, religious landscape changed substantially.

This was especially true in largely Catholic areas of Westphalia, which changed through Protestant immigration from the eastern provinces.

Politically, the confessional division of Germany had considerable consequences. In Catholic areas, the Centre Party had a big electorate.

This began to change with the secularization arising in the last decades of the German Empire. In Germany's overseas colonial empire , millions of subjects practiced various Indigenous religions in addition to the Christian missionaries and colonists.

Greater Imperial coat of arms of Germany. Middle Imperial coat of arms of Germany. Lesser Imperial coat of arms of Germany.

The defeat and aftermath of the First World War and the penalties imposed by the Treaty of Versailles shaped the positive memory of the Empire, especially among Germans who distrusted and despised the Weimar Republic.

Conservatives, liberals, socialists, nationalists, Catholics and Protestants all had their own interpretations, which led to a fractious political and social climate in Germany in the aftermath of the empire's collapse.

Under Bismarck, a united German state had finally been achieved, but it remained a Prussian-dominated state and did not include German Austria as Pan-German nationalists had desired.

The influence of Prussian militarism , the Empire's colonial efforts and its vigorous, competitive industrial prowess all gained it the dislike and envy of other nations.

The German Empire enacted a number of progressive reforms, such as Europe's first social welfare system and freedom of press.

There was also a modern system for electing the federal parliament, the Reichstag, in which every adult man had one vote.

This enabled the Socialists and the Catholic Centre Party to play considerable roles in the empire's political life despite the continued hostility of Prussian aristocrats.

The era of the German Empire is well remembered in Germany as one of great cultural and intellectual vigour. Thomas Mann published his novel Buddenbrooks in Theodor Mommsen received the Nobel prize for literature a year later for his Roman history.

Painters like the groups Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke made a significant contribution to modern art. The AEG turbine factory in Berlin by Peter Behrens from was a milestone in classic modern architecture and an outstanding example of emerging functionalism.

The social, economic, and scientific successes of this Gründerzeit , or founding epoch, have sometimes led the Wilhelmine era to be regarded as a golden age.

In the field of economics, the " Kaiserzeit " laid the foundation of Germany's status as one of the world's leading economic powers.

The iron and coal industries of the Ruhr , the Saar and Upper Silesia especially contributed to that process.

The first motorcar was built by Karl Benz in The enormous growth of industrial production and industrial potential also led to a rapid urbanisation of Germany, which turned the Germans into a nation of city dwellers.

Many historians have emphasized the central importance of a German Sonderweg or "special path" or "exceptionalism" as the root of Nazism and the German catastrophe in the 20th century.

According to the historiography by Kocka , the process of nation-building from above had very grievous long-term implications. In terms of parliamentary democracy, Parliament was kept weak, the parties were fragmented, and there was a high level of mutual distrust.

The Nazis built on the illiberal, anti-pluralist elements of Weimar's political culture. The Junker elites the large landowners in the east and senior civil servants used their great power and influence well into the twentieth century to frustrate any movement toward democracy.

They played an especially negative role in the crisis of — Bismarck's emphasis on military force amplified the voice of the officer corps, which combined advanced modernisation of military technology with reactionary politics.

The rising upper-middle class elites, in the business, financial and professional worlds, tended to accept the values of the old traditional elites.

The German Empire was for Hans-Ulrich Wehler a strange mixture of highly successful capitalist industrialisation and socio-economic modernisation on the one hand, and of surviving pre-industrial institutions, power relations and traditional cultures on the other.

Wehler argues that it produced a high degree of internal tension, which led on the one hand to the suppression of socialists, Catholics and reformers, and on the other hand to a highly aggressive foreign policy.

Hans-Ulrich Wehler , a leader of the Bielefeld School of social history, places the origins of Germany's path to disaster in the s—s, when economic modernisation took place, but political modernisation did not happen and the old Prussian rural elite remained in firm control of the army, diplomacy and the civil service.

Traditional, aristocratic, premodern society battled an emerging capitalist, bourgeois, modernising society. Recognising the importance of modernising forces in industry and the economy and in the cultural realm, Wehler argues that reactionary traditionalism dominated the political hierarchy of power in Germany, as well as social mentalities and in class relations Klassenhabitus.

The catastrophic German politics between and are interpreted in terms of a delayed modernisation of its political structures.

At the core of Wehler's interpretation is his treatment of "the middle class" and "revolution", each of which was instrumental in shaping the 20th century.

Wehler's examination of Nazi rule is shaped by his concept of "charismatic domination", which focuses heavily on Hitler.

The historiographical concept of a German Sonderweg has had a turbulent history. They stressed the strong bureaucratic state, reforms initiated by Bismarck and other strong leaders, the Prussian service ethos, the high culture of philosophy and music, and Germany's pioneering of a social welfare state.

In the s, historians in West Germany argued that the Sonderweg led Germany to the disaster of — The special circumstances of German historical structures and experiences, were interpreted as preconditions that, while not directly causing National Socialism, did hamper the development of a liberal democracy and facilitate the rise of fascism.

The Sonderweg paradigm has provided the impetus for at least three strands of research in German historiography: the " long 19th century ", the history of the bourgeoisie, and comparisons with the West.

After , increased attention to cultural dimensions and to comparative and relational history moved German historiography to different topics, with much less attention paid to the Sonderweg.

While some historians have abandoned the Sonderweg thesis, they have not provided a generally accepted alternative interpretation. In addition to present-day Germany, large parts of what comprised the German Empire now belong to several other modern European countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the German nation-state existing from until For other uses, see German Empire disambiguation.

Central European state to Coat of arms — Federal parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy — Federal parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy under a military dictatorship — Imperial Diet Federal Council.

Until :. Area and population not including colonial possessions. Main article: Unification of Germany. Main article: Founding of the German Empire.

Part of a series on the. German Confederation Zollverein. Occupation Ostgebiete. Reunification New federal states. Main article: German colonial empire.

Further information: Economic history of Germany. See also: Urbanization in the German Empire. Main article: Kulturkampf. Main article: Year of the Three Emperors.

Main article: German entry into World War I. Main article: Constitution of the German Empire. Main article: States of the German Empire.

See also: List of historic states of Germany. Main article: Sonderweg. Denotes territories lost in World War I. Denotes territories lost in both World Wars.

Denotes territories lost in World War II. German Empire portal Germany portal. Small islands also existed in Recklinghausen Westphalia with Retrieved 25 April Archived from the original on 5 April German Wikisource.

Retrieved 2 April The term " Kaiserreich " literally denotes an empire — particularly a hereditary empire led by an emperor, although " Reich " has been used in German to denote the Roman Empire because it had a weak hereditary tradition.

In the case of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich , which is properly translated as "German Empire" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a " presidency " of a confederation of German states led by the King of Prussia who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring to the German people, but was not emperor of Germany as in an emperor of a state.

The World Book dictionary, Volume 1. World Book, Inc. Whitaker's almanack, Refers to the term Deutsches Reich being translated into English as "German Realm", up to and including the Nazi period.

Oxford: Berghahn, ; James Retallack, ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, A History of Modern Germany: to the Present. Eine Dokumentensammlung nebst Einführungen.

Band: Gesamtdeutschland, Anhaltische Staaten und Baden. Springer, Berlin , pp. Retrieved 2 December War in Human Civilization.

Oxford University Press. Retrieved 17 November Talboys, David Alphonso ed. London: H. Retrieved 23 July European Constitutional History.

Cambridge UP. The American Century in Europe. Cornell University Press. German Studies Review. New York: iUniverse.

A History of Modern Germany Since London: Continuum. German History. Journal of Southern African Studies.

Imperial Germany — Table 1. Merck," Business History Review. Volume: Issue: 3. Grenville, Europe reshaped, — p. Dwyer, ed. Modern Prussian History: — pp.

Cambridge Illustrated History of Germany. Cambridge University Press. The German Empire: — New York: Random House. Jarausch, eds. Retrieved 19 April German Anglophobia and the Great War, — Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 20 January Library of Congress.

Journal of Contemporary History. None of the series has yet been translated into English. Barker, J. Modern Germany; her political and economic problems, her foreign and domestic policy, her ambitions, and the causes of her success Berghahn, Volker Rolf.

German Studies Review , vol. Carroll, E. Germany and the great powers, — A study in public opinion and foreign policy ; online at Questia also online review ; pp; written for advanced students.

Cecil, Lamar. Imperial Germany and the Great War, — 2nd ed. Bismarck and state socialism; an exposition of the social and economic legislation of Germany since pp Dawson, William Harbutt.

Municipal life and government in Germany ; pp describes the workings of local government and the famous bureaucracy Dawson, William Harbutt.

Germany and the Germans pp; politics and parties, Volume 2 Eyck, Erich. Bismarck and the German Empire excerpt and text search Fischer, Fritz.

Geiss, Imanuel. Imperial Culture in Germany, — Kennedy, Paul. The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism, — 2nd ed. A constitutional history of Germany in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries Kurlander, Eric.

Levy, Richard S. Milward, Alan S. The Development of the Economies of Continental Europe: — pp 17— Mombauer, Annika and Wilhelm Deist, eds.

Nipperdey, Thomas. Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck dense coverage of chief topics Padfield, Peter. Reagin, Nancy Journal of Modern History.

Retallack, James. Imperial Germany — Ritter, Gerhard. Escape into War? The Foreign Policy of Imperial Germany. Smith, Helmut Walser, ed.

The German Empire, — Random House, Stern, Fritz. Gold and Iron: Bismarck, Bleichroder, and the Building of the German Empire Bismarck worked closely with this leading banker and financier excerpt and text search Steinberg, Jonathan.

Berg, German Women for Empire, — Berghahn, Volker Rolf. Dawson, William Harbutt. Germany at Home pp; popular description of social life in villages and cities Vizetelly, Henry.

London, Volume 2. World War I. Home fronts. Bulgarian mobilization Ottoman mobilization. Pacifism Anti-war movement.

A conservative majority was always assured in Prussia, whereas the universal manhood suffrage resulted in increasing majorities for the political centre and left-wing parties in the imperial parliament.

William I was both German emperor —88 and king of Prussia — Apart from two brief instances the imperial chancellor was simultaneously prime minister of Prussia.

Thus, the executives had to seek majorities from two separate legislatures elected by radically different franchises. A further problem was that government ministers were generally selected from the civil service or the military.

They often had little experience with parliamentary government or foreign affairs. The constitution had been designed by Bismarck to give the chancellor and monarch primary decision-making power.

Female suffrage had not been proposed because politics was considered a male preserve at the time. The Progressives, a left-wing liberal party, were expected to do poorly in the two-thirds of Germany that was rural in Bismarck had not counted on new parties such as the Centre Party , a Roman Catholic confessional party, or the Social Democratic Party Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands; SPD , both of which began participating in imperial and Prussian elections in the early s.

The Centre generally received 20—25 percent of the total vote in all elections. The SPD grew from 2 seats in the first imperial election to 35 by , when the SPD actually gained a plurality of votes.

Liberals saw the Roman Catholic church as politically reactionary and feared the appeal of a clerical party to the more than one-third of Germans who professed Roman Catholicism.

Both Bismarck and the liberals doubted the loyalty of the Catholic population to the Prussian-centred and, therefore, primarily Protestant nation.

In Prussia the minister of ecclesiastical affairs and education, Adalbert Falk , introduced a series of bills establishing civil marriage, limiting the movement of the clergy, and dissolving religious orders.

All church appointments were to be approved by the state. As a result hundreds of parishes and several bishoprics were left without incumbents.

Clerical civil servants were purged from the Prussian administration. The Kulturkampf failed to achieve its goals and, if anything, convinced the Roman Catholic minority that their fear of persecution was real and that a confessional party to represent their interests was essential.

By the late s Bismarck abandoned the battle as a failure. He now launched a campaign against the SPD in concert with the two conservative parties and many National Liberals.

Fearing the potential of the Social Democrats in a rapidly industrializing Germany, Bismarck found a majority to outlaw the party from to , although constitutionally it could not be forbidden to participate in elections.

Party offices and newspapers were closed down and meetings prohibited. Many socialists fled to Switzerland and sought to keep the party alive in exile.

During the s Bismarck also sought to win the workers away from socialism by introducing legislation granting them modest pensions, accident insurance, and a national system of medical coverage.

Like the Kulturkampf , the campaign against the SPD was a failure, and, when the elections showed enormous gains for the Reichsfeinde , Bismarck began to consider having the German princes reconvene, as in , to draw up a new constitution.

Thus, Bismarck, the architect of German unity, left the scene in a humiliating fashion, believing that his creation was fatally flawed.

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